by David Germano, Nicolas Tournadre and THL.
These items are not covered by rules; rather, they are documented in a formal list of exceptions. Please contact us with words that should be covered here but are not. ( Contact THL )
1. In some cases the the superscript l and the prefix m produce a nasal “n” or labial “m,” respectively, at the end of the preceding syllable.
- — + l or ’ > n or m
- — + m > m
- dga’ ldan > Ganden
- ’bras ljongs > Drenjong
- me mda’ > menda
- a mdo > Amdo
- rta mgrin > Tamdrin
2. In a few cases the production of a labialization by the prefix m and nasalization by the superscript l results in the elision of the preceding suffix. Examples:
- chab mdo > Chamdo
- dpal ldan > Penden
3. In certain words that contain an r subscript affixed to a p, ph or b root letter, the r disappears in normal pronunciation. Examples:
- ’bri ru > Biru
- sbra nag zhol > Banakzhöl
4. In certain words with an r superscript in the second syllable, this superscript is pronounced. Examples:
- rdo rje > Dorjé
- o rgyan > Orgyen
- lha rje > lharjé
See the List of Exceptions in the last section of this document for a list of words not pronounced according to the rules described above.