Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text

THL Extended Wylie Transliteration Scheme

Overview

With the burgeoning of digital technology in the humanities and the recent surge of scholarly interest in Tibetan studies, the need for a standard transliteration system is even more compelling at present. However, Wylie’s own scheme is not comprehensive, and incommensurable extensions of it have proliferated in the digital world. While the international standards community (“ISO”) has established standards for the transliteration of other languages using non-roman alphabets, no such standard has been established for Tibetan, either de facto or ISO-approved. We thus feel the time has come to establish such an initiative in order to promote a standard format for information exchange dealing with Tibetan texts and language.

Some within the PRC have modified Wylie’s system by using v and x respectively to transcribe the a-chung (23rd letter) and the a-chen (30th letter). We can see no compelling reason for such an alteration. Our system is geared towards a disambiguated transliteration required for digital processing and aims to make as little change as possible to already extant scholarly practices in most countries, especially those where transliteration is most commonly used in respect to Tibetan. We have not been persuaded by arguments that the a-chung and a-chen should be represented by ‘v’ and ‘x’ since they are treated as consonants in most Tibetan grammars. Firstly, the apostrophe used to represent a-chung in Wylie is not a vowel anyways; secondly, the status of a-chung and a-chen in Tibetan grammar are controversial; and thirdly, while Wylie is not a phonetic system, it does have the advantage of using reasonable phonetic approximations of Tibetan letters, and ‘v’ and ‘x’ would completely contradict that principle.

Though we have adopted Wylie’s basic scheme, there are several fundamental gaps in the Wylie transliteration scheme that need to be addressed, if one is to develop a comprehensive standard. These are:

  1. The ability to represent Tibetan transliterations of Sanskrit characters not normally found in Tibetan language without the use of diacritic marks,
  2. The ability to unambiguously represent unusual stacks of Tibetan characters in the transliteration of mantras and the like, and
  3. The ability to represent various Tibetan punctuation marks not covered by Wylie.

Various solutions have been proposed, though there has been no consensus. The following presents an unambiguous solution to these problems, with an eye toward digitally processing Tibetan documents as well as orthographic considerations. This is a provisional proposal, and we plan to systematically revise it as necessary in coordination with critical feedback from Tibetan scholars and Tibetan computing experts from around the world. Our goal is establishing an internationally accepted standard that is both used by scholars and computing experts, and approved by the relevant international standards organization. Wylie’s basic scheme, adopted for transliterating the consonant and vowels, is outlined in the tables below. What follows is an explanation for the proposed additions to Wylie’s system.

It should be noted that a proposed transliteration scheme must serve the needs of print publication and electronic publications. Print publications most typically use transliteration for references to terms or names, as well as for citations of short passages; less frequently, an entire text may be given in transliteration rather than Tibetan script. Electronic publications differ from print publications in having the added flexibility of being able to store material in transliteration, but then deliver it for display various modes, such as in a different transliteration system (such as one with diacritics), in Tibetan script, in a phonetic rendering and so on. For the most part, the needs of print and digital publication are identical when it comes to a transliteration system, with the latter simply adding more stringent requirements. However, there is one potential problem with regards to Tibetan, namely the use of capital letters and “plus” signs as detailed below, which are vital to articulate a comprehensive transliteration system beyond the basic scheme now commonly used. While not formally part of the Wylie system, many authors have taken to using a capital letter to indicate a place or personal name; in addition, the capital letters and plus signs as outlined above can look odd visually to people accustomed to the basic Wylie scheme. In this regards, we should note that the capital letters and plus signs are used to cover special words, such as Sanskrit transliterations, and thus will not typically appear in standard Tibetan passages. Secondly, in print publications authors could continue to use capital letters to mark place and person names as an informal practice – which is its current status within Wylie – but this could not be done in data intended to be used in computer contexts.

Tibetan Transliteration of Sanskrit

Because of the great importance of translation of Indian Buddhist scripture in Tibetan religious culture from the eighth century onwards, Tibetans developed a method for accurately transliterating Sanskrit using Tibetan orthography. However, to do so they had to make modifications to their glyphs and writing conventions. There were two basic problems. First, Sanskrit contains a whole series of characters not found in Tibetan, mainly the retroflex characters but also the anusvara and visarga, to name a few. The last two were dealt with by adopting the Sanskrit ligature—a circle above the character and a colon-like glyph at the end of a word. For the retroflex characters, they took their closest relative, generally the dentals with one exception, and reversed them. The second problem was that Sanskrit contains consonant combinations that do not conventionally occur in Tibetan. This was easily solved by stacking the consonants with the first on top and the last on the bottom, though such combinations often transgressed the traditional grammatical rules for creating stacks in Tibetan. While Wylie’s system can account for the abnormal stacks by just stringing the consonants together, it presents no way to transliterate the Tibetanized Sanskrit characters without resorting to diacritics, thereby transgressing Wylie’s own goals. In the proposed system, these retroflex characters are handled in a way similar to the Tibetan method, namely by capitalization of the corresponding dental. There are six main retroflex characters, represented below with their diacritic transliteration:

Even with the computer, diacritic marks are hard to type, requiring several keystrokes for one character. Yet, if a simple, unambiguous transliteration is adopted the computer can easily be programmed to represent those characters with diacritic marks if so desired, as well as correspondingly represent them with the correct Tibetan glyph. Thus, it is proposed that for these characters, the capital forms of their corresponding letters be used, rendering them:

Ta Tha Da Dha Na Sha

This would of course preclude using capitals to distinguish proper names or root letters. We believe there is little practical benefit in distinguishing root letters that way, as anyone who can read Tibetan can easily pick out the root letters. Capitalization of proper names could be allowed when imbedded in English for conformity to English practice, but should not be used for strict transliteration. For the sake of consistency it is proposed that the anusvara and visarga be handled in a similar way through capitalization:

M H

While the objection could be raised that interspersed capital letters are difficult to read, the purpose here is to develop an unambiguous and simple transliteration system as Wylie proposed. In print publications, diacritics could still be used, as they are today. However, with digital technology, it is desirable to have the transliterated text easily transferable between machines and platforms. The use of diacritics, which are font specific, hinders this, whereas the use of capitals does not. Conversely, conversion from our extended Wylie system to a diacritic font would be relatively straightforward, as long as the transliteration system is, like this one, disambiguated.

Non-standard Tibetan stacks found in Tibetan transliteration of Sanskrit also present a problem for transliteration. These stacks can be represented in Wylie’s system by merely stringing consonants together. However, some of these Sanskrit stacks can be confused for letter combinations found in standard Tibetan. For instance, there is a Sanskrit stack consisting of an n over a y. Unless provision is made for distinguishing this combination, it would naturally be confused with the eighth Tibetan letter, nya. For this situation, we suggest the use of the plus sign (+) between all non-standard stack letters found in Tibetan transliteration of Sanskrit. For instance there are aspirated letters in Sanskrit not found in Tibetan, such as dha, gha, and bha. These would be transliterated as d+ha, g+ha, and b+ha respectively. If a Tibetan transliteration of a multi-syllable Sanskrit word falls within one syllable, or tsheg bar, an implicit “a” is inserted after each syllable that does not have an explicit vowel. Thus, the Tibetan transliteration of the word “tantra” is “tan+t+ra,” “citta” is “tsit+ta,” and maṇḍala is “maN+Dala.” (To view a list of standard Tibetan stacks, click here. “Non-standard Tibetan stacks” would be all other combinations not found in this list.)

We have retained the use of the period between a g prefixed to a y to distinguish such a combination from the stack gy, because this is an already well-established practice. Thus, the Tibetan words for left and right are transliterated g.yon and g.yas, respectively, whereas the word for ornament would be rgyan. The function of the period can be extended to other situations where one desires to prevent stacking.

Punctuation

The other major omission of the Wylie scheme lies in its limited coverage of punctuation. This system adopts the basic policy, as does Wylie, of using a space for a tsheg, the intersyllable dot, with the special exception of using an asterisk (*) for a non-breaking tsheg, which will not allow a line break to occur after it. In other Wylie-based transliteration systems that use a space for a tsheg, there is no way to represent the white space that can actually occur in Tibetan texts. To disambiguate this situation, the underscore (_) is proposed as an equivalent to Tibetan white space. Besides the tsheg, Wylie presents no policy concerning punctuation in his article. Yet, Tibetan has as much punctuation as English, if not more. It is therefore necessary to develop a standard for transcribing these unpronounced marks. The common convention of using the slash (/) for a shad, the vertical line ending a phrase, has been adopted. The remaining punctuation marks are less frequent, though the attempt has been made to represent them with standard Latin-I character set glyphs that are if possible somewhat similar in form to the corresponding Tibetan glyph. Thus, the tsheg shad, a line with a dot above it, is represented by the semicolon (;). The rin chen spungs shad, a shad with three dots above it, is represented by the vertical bar (|). The sbrul shad is represented by an exclamation mark (!), and the gter shad represented by the colon (:). Though it could be argued, that the colon is more appropriate for the visarga (\u0F7F), as they are almost identical in shape, the counter argument is that the gter shad not only is similar in form to a colon but they are both punctuation marks (albeit with different functions), whereas the visarga represents an aspiration at the end of the word and given the method of dealing with transliterated Sanskrit above, is best represented by a capital H. The final punctuation mark to mention is the yig mgo mark, which has two forms mdun ma (front) and sgab ma (back) respectively. The first is represented by a similar looking glyph, the at-sign (@), while the second is represented by the next symbol over on the keyboard, the pound sign (#) for ease of typing. This covers the major punctuation mark; others are listed in the punctuation chart below.

Not all the punctuation marks in the chart below have transliteration equivalents. This is because there are not enough characters on the standard keyboard to correspond to every character that is found in the Unicode 4.0 Tibetan character set. Besides, there should be a secondary way of transcribing a character as some keyboards may lack certain keys such as the dollar-sign and so forth. To this end, it is proposed that the use of an “escape” character is standardized. The “escape” character would be inserted before the desired character’s Unicode value, just as one can now use the alt key to type in a decimal code for a character. This can be done with any character in the Tibetan character set. The proposed escape sequence is that used for the universal character names, the backslash-“u” combination (\u) followed by the characters hexadecimal Unicode value. Thus, the rgya gram shad, which does not have a single character transliteration equivalent, can be entered by typing: \u0F12. The astrological sign sgra gcan char rtags, lacking a transliteration equivalent, will have to be entered: \u0F17. As these universal character names are unambiguous and always have the format \uXXXX or \uXXXXXXXX, there is no need for a closing marker. Because the consonants, vowels, Sanskrit-derived characters, and punctuation make use of every available key on the standard keyboard, such escape codes will have to be used for the other Tibetan characters in Unicode 4.0 (Chart VI) and later releases. These escape codes could be used for other character sets as well, such as Devanagari or Chinese, which may be interspersed with Tibetan. This accounts for all the Unicode 4.0 character set; however, some provision needs to be made to deal with punctuation not included in that set. In the last chart below (Chart VII), we have included some marks found in various Tibetan fonts that do not appear to be included in the Unicode standard for Tibetan. The THL Extended Wylie Transliteration Scheme thus proposed covers all the various possible letter combinations found in Tibetan literature in an unambiguous way. For most situations, Wylie’s basic system will suffice. So, it has been left in tact here. However, if the more unusual letter combinations are found, they can be easily and clearly transliterated using the above system. The following charts give the complete proposed Extended Wylie system of transliteration as described above. There are seven such tables:

  1. Consonants,
  2. Vowels,
  3. Numerals,
  4. Sanskrit letters,
  5. Punctuation,
  6. Other Tibetan characters found in Unicode 4.0,
  7. Characters not found in Unicode 4.0.

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Name:TIBETAN SYLLABLE OM
Glyph:ༀ
Unicode:0F00
EWTS:oM
Name:TIBETAN MARK GTER YIG MGO TRUNCATED A (ter yik go a thung)
Glyph:༁
Unicode:0F01
EWTS:\u0F01
Name:TIBETAN MARK GTER YIG MGO -UM RNAM BCAD MA (ter yik go wum nam chey ma)
Glyph:༂
Unicode:0F02
EWTS:\u0F02
Name:TIBETAN MARK GTER YIG MGO -UM GTER TSHEG MA (ter yik go wum ter tsek ma)
Glyph:༃
Unicode:0F03
EWTS:\u0F03
Name:TIBETAN MARK INITIAL YIG MGO MDUN MA (yik go dun ma)
Glyph:༄
Unicode:0F04
EWTS:@
Notes: • honorific; marks beginning of text or start of new folio, => (mongolian birga - 1800)
Name:TIBETAN MARK CLOSING YIG MGO SGAB MA (yik go kab ma)
Glyph:༅
Unicode:0F05
EWTS:#
Notes: • follows and ligates with initial yig-mgo
Name:TIBETAN MARK CARET YIG MGO PHUR SHAD MA (yik go pur shey ma)
Glyph:༆
Unicode:0F06
EWTS:$
Name:TIBETAN MARK YIG MGO TSHEG SHAD MA (yik go tsek shey ma)
Glyph:༇
Unicode:0F07
EWTS:%
Name:TIBETAN MARK SBRUL SHAD (drul shey)
Glyph:༈
Unicode:0F08
EWTS:!
Notes: • separates sections of meaning equivalent to topics and sub-topics
Name:TIBETAN MARK BSKUR YIG MGO (kur yik go)
Glyph:༉
Unicode:0F09
EWTS:\u0F09
Notes: • list enumerator, used in Bhutan
Name:TIBETAN MARK BKA- SHOG YIG MGO (ka sho yik go)
Glyph:༊
Unicode:0F0A
EWTS:\u0F0A
Notes: • petition honorific, used in Bhutan
Name:TIBETAN MARK INTERSYLLABIC TSHEG (tsek)
Glyph:་
Unicode:0F0B
EWTS:(Spacebar)
Notes: • morpheme delimiter (approximate meaning)
• the normal tsheg; provides a break opportunity
• character name is a misnomer
Name:TIBETAN MARK DELIMITER TSHEG BSTAR (tsek tar)
Glyph:་
Unicode:0F0C
EWTS:*
Notes: • a non-breaking tsheg; inhibits line breaking
• character name is a misnomer
• # <noBreak> 0F0B
Name:TIBETAN MARK SHAD (shey)
Glyph:།
Unicode:0F0D
EWTS:/
Notes: • marks end of a section of text (tshig-grub)
• => (devanagari danda - 0964)
Name:TIBETAN MARK NYIS SHAD (nyi shey)
Glyph:༎
Unicode:0F0E
EWTS://
Notes: • marks end of a whole topic (don-tshan)
• => (devanagari double danda - 0965)
Name:TIBETAN MARK TSHEG SHAD (tsek shey)
Glyph:༏
Unicode:0F0F
EWTS:;
Name:TIBETAN MARK NYIS TSHEG SHAD (nyi tsek shey)
Glyph:༐
Unicode:0F10
EWTS:\u0F10
Name:TIBETAN MARK RIN CHEN SPUNGS SHAD (rinchen pung shey)
Glyph:༑
Unicode:0F11
EWTS:|
Notes: • shad which follows a tsheg-bar that starts a new line
Name:TIBETAN MARK RGYA GRAM SHAD (gya tram shey)
Glyph:༒
Unicode:0F12
EWTS:\u0F12
Name:TIBETAN MARK CARET -DZUD RTAGS ME LONG CAN (dzu ta me long chen)
Glyph:༓
Unicode:0F13
EWTS:\u0F13
Name:TIBETAN MARK GTER TSHEG (ter tsek)
Glyph:༔
Unicode:0F14
EWTS::
Notes: • used as a comma-like text delimiter
• => (khmer sign camnuc pii kuuh - 17D6)
Name:TIBETAN LOGOTYPE SIGN CHAD RTAGS (che ta)
Glyph:༕
Unicode:0F15
EWTS:\u0F15
Name:TIBETAN LOGOTYPE SIGN LHAG RTAGS (hlak ta)
Glyph:༖
Unicode:0F16
EWTS:\u0F16
Name:TIBETAN ASTROLOGICAL SIGN SGRA GCAN -CHAR RTAGS (trachen char ta)
Glyph:༗
Unicode:0F17
EWTS:\u0F17
Name:TIBETAN ASTROLOGICAL SIGN -KHYUD PA (kyu pa)
Glyph:༘
Unicode:0F18
EWTS:\u0F18
Notes: • combines with digits
Name:TIBETAN ASTROLOGICAL SIGN SDONG TSHUGS (dong tsu)
Glyph: ༙
Unicode:0F19
EWTS:\u0F19
Notes: • combines with digits
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL DKAR GCIG (deka chig)
Glyph:༚
Unicode:0F1A
EWTS:\u0F1A
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL DKAR GNYIS (deka nyi)
Glyph:༛
Unicode:0F1B
EWTS:\u0F1B
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL DKAR GSUM (deka sum)
Glyph:༜
Unicode:0F1C
EWTS:\u0F1C
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL NAG GCIG (dena chig)
Glyph:༝
Unicode:0F1D
EWTS:\u0F1D
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL NAG GNYIS (dena nyi)
Glyph:༞
Unicode:0F1E
EWTS:\u0F1E
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL DKAR RDEL NAG (deka dena)
Glyph:༟
Unicode:0F1F
EWTS:\u0F1F
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT ZERO
Glyph:༠
Unicode:0F20
EWTS:0
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT ONE
Glyph:༡
Unicode:0F21
EWTS:1
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT TWO
Glyph:༢
Unicode:0F22
EWTS:2
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT THREE
Glyph:༣
Unicode:0F23
EWTS:3
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT FOUR
Glyph:༤
Unicode:0F24
EWTS:4
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT FIVE
Glyph:༥
Unicode:0F25
EWTS:5
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT SIX
Glyph:༦
Unicode:0F26
EWTS:6
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT SEVEN
Glyph:༧
Unicode:0F27
EWTS:7
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT EIGHT
Glyph:༨
Unicode:0F28
EWTS:8
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT NINE
Glyph:༩
Unicode:0F29
EWTS:9
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF ONE
Glyph:༪
Unicode:0F2A
EWTS:\u0F2A
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF TWO
Glyph:༫
Unicode:0F2B
EWTS:\u0F2B
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF THREE
Glyph:༬
Unicode:0F2C
EWTS:\u0F2C
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF FOUR
Glyph:༭
Unicode:0F2D
EWTS:\u0F2D
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF FIVE
Glyph:༮
Unicode:0F2E
EWTS:\u0F2E
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF SIX
Glyph:༯
Unicode:0F2F
EWTS:\u0F2F
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF SEVEN
Glyph:༰
Unicode:0F30
EWTS:\u0F30
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF EIGHT
Glyph:༱
Unicode:0F31
EWTS:\u0F31
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF NINE
Glyph:༲
Unicode:0F32
EWTS:\u0F32
Name:TIBETAN DIGIT HALF ZERO
Glyph:༳
Unicode:0F33
EWTS:\u0F33
Name:TIBETAN MARK BSDUS RTAGS (du ta)
Glyph:༴
Unicode:0F34
EWTS:=
Notes: • repetition
Name:TIBETAN MARK NGAS BZUNG NYI ZLA (nge zung nyi da)
Glyph: ༵
Unicode:0F35
EWTS:~X
Notes: • honorific, emphasis; used like underlining
Name:TIBETAN MARK CARET -DZUD RTAGS BZHI MIG CAN (dzu ta shi mig chen)
Glyph:༶
Unicode:0F36
EWTS:\u0F36
Notes: • marks point of text insertion or annotation
Name:TIBETAN MARK NGAS BZUNG SGOR RTAGS (nge zung gor ta)
Glyph: ༷
Unicode:0F37
EWTS:X
Notes: • emphasis; used like underlining
Name:TIBETAN MARK CHE MGO (che go)
Glyph:༸
Unicode:0F38
EWTS:\u0F38
Name:TIBETAN MARK TSA -PHRU (tsa tru)
Glyph: ༹
Unicode:0F39
EWTS:^
Notes: • a lenition mark
Name:TIBETAN MARK GUG RTAGS GYON (gug ta yun)
Glyph:༺
Unicode:0F3A
EWTS:<
Name:TIBETAN MARK GUG RTAGS GYAS (gug ta ye)
Glyph:༻
Unicode:0F3B
EWTS:>
Notes: • brackets
Name:TIBETAN MARK ANG KHANG GYON (ang kang yun)
Glyph:༼
Unicode:0F3C
EWTS:(
Name:TIBETAN MARK ANG KHANG GYAS (ang kang ye)
Glyph:༽
Unicode:0F3D
EWTS:)
Notes: • used for bracketing with a roof over
Name:TIBETAN SIGN YAR TSHES (yar tse)
Glyph:༾
Unicode:0F3E
EWTS:\u0F3E
Notes: • mark used in astrological work that combines only with digits
Name:TIBETAN SIGN MAR TSHES (mar tse)
Glyph:༿
Unicode:0F3F
EWTS:\u0F3F
Notes: • mark used in astrological work that combines only with digits
Name:TIBETAN LETTER KA
Glyph:ཀ
Unicode:0F40
EWTS:k
Name:TIBETAN LETTER KHA
Glyph:ཁ
Unicode:0F41
EWTS:kh
Name:TIBETAN LETTER GA
Glyph:ག
Unicode:0F42
EWTS:g
Name:TIBETAN LETTER GHA
Glyph:གྷ
Unicode:0F43
EWTS:g+h
Notes: • : 0F42 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN LETTER NGA
Glyph:ང
Unicode:0F44
EWTS:ng
Name:TIBETAN LETTER CA
Glyph:ཅ
Unicode:0F45
EWTS:c
Name:TIBETAN LETTER CHA
Glyph:ཆ
Unicode:0F46
EWTS:ch
Name:TIBETAN LETTER JA
Glyph:ཇ
Unicode:0F47
EWTS:j
Name:TIBETAN LETTER NYA
Glyph:ཉ
Unicode:0F49
EWTS:ny
Name:TIBETAN LETTER TTA
Glyph:ཊ
Unicode:0F4A
EWTS:T
Name:TIBETAN LETTER TTHA
Glyph:ཋ
Unicode:0F4B
EWTS:Th
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DDA
Glyph:ཌ
Unicode:0F4C
EWTS:D
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DDHA
Glyph:ཌྷ
Unicode:0F4D
EWTS:D+h
Notes: • : 0F4C 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN LETTER NNA
Glyph:ཎ
Unicode:0F4E
EWTS:N
Name:TIBETAN LETTER TA
Glyph:ཏ
Unicode:0F4F
EWTS:t
Name:TIBETAN LETTER THA
Glyph:ཐ
Unicode:0F50
EWTS:th
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DA
Glyph:ད
Unicode:0F51
EWTS:d
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DHA
Glyph:དྷ
Unicode:0F52
EWTS:d+h
Notes: • : 0F51 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN LETTER NA
Glyph:ན
Unicode:0F53
EWTS:n
Name:TIBETAN LETTER PA
Glyph:པ
Unicode:0F54
EWTS:p
Name:TIBETAN LETTER PHA
Glyph:ཕ
Unicode:0F55
EWTS:ph
Name:TIBETAN LETTER BA
Glyph:བ
Unicode:0F56
EWTS:b
Name:TIBETAN LETTER BHA
Glyph:བྷ
Unicode:0F57
EWTS:b+h
Notes: • : 0F56 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN LETTER MA
Glyph:མ
Unicode:0F58
EWTS:m
Name:TIBETAN LETTER TSA
Glyph:ཙ
Unicode:0F59
EWTS:ts
Name:TIBETAN LETTER TSHA
Glyph:ཚ
Unicode:0F5A
EWTS:tsh
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DZA
Glyph:ཛ
Unicode:0F5B
EWTS:dz
Name:TIBETAN LETTER DZHA
Glyph:ཛྷ
Unicode:0F5C
EWTS:dz+h
Notes: • : 0F5B 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN LETTER WA
Glyph:ཝ
Unicode:0F5D
EWTS:w
Name:TIBETAN LETTER ZHA
Glyph:ཞ
Unicode:0F5E
EWTS:zh
Name:TIBETAN LETTER ZA
Glyph:ཟ
Unicode:0F5F
EWTS:z
Name:TIBETAN LETTER -A
Glyph:འ
Unicode:0F60
EWTS:'
Name:TIBETAN LETTER YA
Glyph:ཡ
Unicode:0F61
EWTS:y
Name:TIBETAN LETTER RA *
Glyph:ར
Unicode:0F62
EWTS:r
Notes: • when followed by a subjoined letter = ra mgo
Name:TIBETAN LETTER LA
Glyph:ལ
Unicode:0F63
EWTS:l
Name:TIBETAN LETTER SHA
Glyph:ཤ
Unicode:0F64
EWTS:sh
Name:TIBETAN LETTER SSA
Glyph:ཥ
Unicode:0F65
EWTS:Sh
Notes: • = reversed sha
Name:TIBETAN LETTER SA
Glyph:ས
Unicode:0F66
EWTS:s
Name:TIBETAN LETTER HA
Glyph:ཧ
Unicode:0F67
EWTS:h
Name:TIBETAN LETTER A
Glyph:ཨ
Unicode:0F68
EWTS:a
Notes: • base for dependent vowels
Name:TIBETAN LETTER KSSA
Glyph:ཀྵ
Unicode:0F69
EWTS:k+Sh
Notes: • : 0F40 0FB5
Name:TIBETAN LETTER FIXED-FORM RA *
Glyph:ཪ
Unicode:0F6A
EWTS:R+
Notes: • used only in transliteration and transcription
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN AA
Glyph: ཱ
Unicode:0F71
EWTS:A
Notes: • = a-chung
• common, vowel-lengthening mark
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN I
Glyph: ི
Unicode:0F72
EWTS:i
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN II
Glyph: ཱི
Unicode:0F73
EWTS:I
Notes: • use of this character is discouraged
• : 0F71 0F72
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN U
Glyph: ུ
Unicode:0F74
EWTS:u
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN UU
Glyph: ཱུ
Unicode:0F75
EWTS:U
Notes: • use of this character is discouraged
• : 0F71 0F74
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC R
Glyph: ྲྀ
Unicode:0F76
EWTS:r-i
Notes: • : 0FB2 0F80
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC RR
Glyph: ཷ
Unicode:0F77
EWTS:r-I
Notes: • use of this character is strongly discouraged
• # 0FB2 0F81
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC L
Glyph: ླྀ
Unicode:0F78
EWTS:l-i
Notes: • : 0FB3 0F80
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN VOCALIC LL
Glyph: ཹ
Unicode:0F79
EWTS:l-I
Notes: • use of this character is strongly discouraged
• # 0FB3 0F81
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN E
Glyph: ེ
Unicode:0F7A
EWTS:e
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN EE
Glyph: ཻ
Unicode:0F7B
EWTS:ai
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN O
Glyph: ོ
Unicode:0F7C
EWTS:o
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN OO
Glyph: ཽ
Unicode:0F7D
EWTS:au
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RJES SU NGA RO (je su nga ro)
Glyph: ཾ
Unicode:0F7E
EWTS:M
Notes: • = anusvara
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RNAM BCAD (nam chey)
Glyph: ཿ
Unicode:0F7F
EWTS:H
Notes: • = visarga
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN REVERSED I
Glyph: ྀ
Unicode:0F80
EWTS:-i
Name:TIBETAN VOWEL SIGN REVERSED II
Glyph: ཱྀ
Unicode:0F81
EWTS:-I
Notes: • use of this character is discouraged
• : 0F71 0F80
Name:TIBETAN SIGN NYI ZLA NAA DA (nyi da na da)
Glyph: ྂ
Unicode:0F82
EWTS:~M`
Name:TIBETAN SIGN SNA LDAN (nan de)
Glyph: ྃ
Unicode:0F83
EWTS:~M
Notes: • => (devanagari sign candrabindu - 0901)
Name:TIBETAN MARK HALANTA
Glyph: ྄
Unicode:0F84
EWTS:?
Notes: • = srog med
• => (devanagari sign virama - 094D)
Name:TIBETAN MARK PALUTA
Glyph:྅
Unicode:0F85
EWTS:&
Notes: • transliteration of Sanskrit avagraha
• => (devanagari sign avagraha - 093D)
Name:TIBETAN SIGN LCI RTAGS (ji ta)
Glyph: ྆
Unicode:0F86
EWTS:\u0F86
Name:TIBETAN SIGN YANG RTAGS (yang ta)
Glyph: ྇
Unicode:0F87
EWTS:\u0F87
Name:TIBETAN SIGN LCE TSA CAN (che tsa chen)
Glyph:ྈ
Unicode:0F88
EWTS:\u0F88
Name:TIBETAN SIGN MCHU CAN (chu chen)
Glyph:ྉ
Unicode:0F89
EWTS:\u0F89
Name:TIBETAN SIGN GRU CAN RGYINGS (tru chen ging)
Glyph:ྊ
Unicode:0F8A
EWTS:\u0F8A
Notes: • always followed by 0F82
Name:TIBETAN SIGN GRU MED RGYINGS (tru me ging)
Glyph:ྋ
Unicode:0F8B
EWTS:\u0F8B
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER KA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F90
EWTS:k
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER KHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F91
EWTS:kh
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER GA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F92
EWTS:g
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER GHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F93
EWTS:g+h
Notes: • : 0F92 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER NGA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F94
EWTS:ng
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER CA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F95
EWTS:c
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER CHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F96
EWTS:ch
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER JA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F97
EWTS:j
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER NYA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F99
EWTS:ny
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER TTA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9A
EWTS:T
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER TTHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9B
EWTS:Th
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DDA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9C
EWTS:D
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DDHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9D
EWTS:D+h
Notes: • : 0F9C 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER NNA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9E
EWTS:N
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER TA
Glyph:
Unicode:0F9F
EWTS:t
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER THA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA0
EWTS:th
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA1
EWTS:d
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA2
EWTS:d+h
Notes: • : 0FA1 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER NA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA3
EWTS:n
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER PA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA4
EWTS:p
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER PHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA5
EWTS:ph
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER BA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA6
EWTS:b
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER BHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA7
EWTS:b+h
Notes: • : 0FA6 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER MA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA8
EWTS:m
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER TSA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FA9
EWTS:ts
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER TSHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAA
EWTS:tsh
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DZA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAB
EWTS:dz
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER DZHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAC
EWTS:dz+h
Notes: • : 0FAB 0FB7
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER WA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAD
EWTS:w
Notes: • = wa-zur, wa-btags
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER ZHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAE
EWTS:zh
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER ZA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FAF
EWTS:z
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER -A
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB0
EWTS:'
Notes: • = a-chung
• rare, only used for full-sized subjoined letter
• => (tibetan vowel sign aa - 0F71)
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER YA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB1
EWTS:y
Notes: • = ya-btags
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER RA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB2
EWTS:r
Notes: • = ra-btags
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER LA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB3
EWTS:l
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SHA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB4
EWTS:sh
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SSA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB5
EWTS:Sh
Notes: • = reversed subjoined sha
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER SA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB6
EWTS:s
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER HA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB7
EWTS:h
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER A
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB8
EWTS:a
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER KSSA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FB9
EWTS:k+Sh
Notes: • : 0F90 0FB5
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM WA *
Glyph: ྺ
Unicode:0FBA
EWTS:+W
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM YA *
Glyph: ྻ
Unicode:0FBB
EWTS:+Y
Name:TIBETAN SUBJOINED LETTER FIXED-FORM RA *
Glyph: ྼ
Unicode:0FBC
EWTS:+R
Name:TIBETAN KU RU KHA (kuruka)
Glyph:྾
Unicode:0FBE
EWTS:\u0FBE
Notes: • often repeated three times; indicates a refrain
Name:TIBETAN KU RU KHA BZHI MIG CAN (kuruka shi mik chen)
Glyph:྿
Unicode:0FBF
EWTS:\u0FBF
Notes: • marks point of text insertion or annotation
• => (reference mark - 203B)
Name:TIBETAN CANTILLATION SIGN HEAVY BEAT
Glyph:࿀
Unicode:0FC0
EWTS:\u0FC0
Notes: • marks a heavy drum beat
Name:TIBETAN CANTILLATION SIGN LIGHT BEAT
Glyph:࿁
Unicode:0FC1
EWTS:\u0FC1
Notes: • marks a light drum beat
Name:TIBETAN CANTILLATION SIGN CANG TE-U (chang tyu)
Glyph:࿂
Unicode:0FC2
EWTS:\u0FC2
Notes: • symbol of a small Tibetan hand drum
Name:TIBETAN CANTILLATION SIGN SBUB -CHAL (bub chey)
Glyph:࿃
Unicode:0FC3
EWTS:\u0FC3
Notes: • symbol of a Tibetan cymbal
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL DRIL BU (drilbu)
Glyph:࿄
Unicode:0FC4
EWTS:\u0FC4
Notes: • symbol of a Tibetan hand bell
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL RDO RJE (dorje)
Glyph:࿅
Unicode:0FC5
EWTS:\u0FC5
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL PADMA GDAN (pema den)
Glyph: ࿆
Unicode:0FC6
EWTS:\u0FC6
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL RDO RJE RGYA GRAM (dorje gya dram)
Glyph:࿇
Unicode:0FC7
EWTS:\u0FC7
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL PHUR PA (phurba)
Glyph:࿈
Unicode:0FC8
EWTS:\u0FC8
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL NOR BU (norbu)
Glyph:࿉
Unicode:0FC9
EWTS:\u0FC9
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL NOR BU NYIS -KHYIL (norbu nyi khyi)
Glyph:࿊
Unicode:0FCA
EWTS:\u0FCA
Notes: • the double body symbol
• => (yin yang - 262F)
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL NOR BU GSUM -KHYIL (norbu sum khyi)
Glyph:࿋
Unicode:0FCB
EWTS:\u0FCB
Notes: • the tri-kaya or triple body symbol
Name:TIBETAN SYMBOL NOR BU BZHI -KHYIL (norbu shi khyi)
Glyph:࿌
Unicode:0FCC
EWTS:\u0FCC
Notes: • the quadruple body symbol, a form of the swastika
• => (cjk unified ideograph-534D - 534D)
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL NAG RDEL DKAR
Glyph:
Unicode:0FCE
EWTS:\u0FCE
Notes: • = dena deka
• • signifies good luck earlier, bad luck later
Name:TIBETAN SIGN RDEL NAG GSUM
Glyph:࿏
Unicode:0FCF
EWTS:\u0FCF
Name:TIBETAN MARK BSKA-SHOG GI MGO RGYAN
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD0
EWTS:\u0FD0
Notes: • used in Bhutan
Name:TIBETAN MARK MNYAM YIG GI MGO RGYAN
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD1
EWTS:\u0FD1
Notes: • used in Bhutan
Name:TIBETAN MARK NYIS TSHEG
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD2
EWTS:\u0FD2
Notes: • = nyi tsek
Name:TIBETAN MARK INITIAL BRDA RNYING YIG MGO MDUN MA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD3
EWTS:\u0FD3
Notes: • = da nyig yig go dun ma
Name:TIBETAN MARK CLOSING BRDA RNYING YIG MGO SGAB MA
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD4
EWTS:\u0FD4
Notes: • = da nying yik go kab ma
Name:RIGHT-FACING SVASTI SIGN
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD5
EWTS:\u0FD5
Notes: • = gyung drung nang-khor
• • symbol of good luck and well-being in India
• → 5350
Name:LEFT-FACING SVASTI SIGN
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD6
EWTS:\u0FD6
Notes: • = gyung drung phyi-khor
• → 534D
Name:RIGHT-FACING SVASTI SIGN WITH DOTS
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD7
EWTS:\u0FD7
Notes: • = gyung drung nang-khor bzhi mig can
Name:LEFT-FACING SVASTI SIGN WITH DOTS
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD8
EWTS:\u0FD8
Notes: • = gyung drung phyi-khor bzhi mig can
Name:TIBETAN MARK LEADING MCHAN RTAGS
Glyph:
Unicode:0FD9
EWTS:\u0FD9
Notes:
Name:TIBETAN MARK TRAILING MCHAN RTAGS
Glyph:
Unicode:0FDA
EWTS:\u0FDA
Notes:
Name:SPACE
Glyph: (Whitespace)
Unicode:0020
EWTS:_
Name:Yung-drung (g.yung drung) Standard
Glyph:
Unicode:534D
EWTS:\u534D
Notes: • This is a character found in the “CJK Unified Ideographs” section of the Unicode specification. The transliteration equivalent is based on its code. The character name and this note have been added by the THL for this context.
Name:Yung-drung (g.yung drung) Reversed
Glyph:
Unicode:5350
EWTS:\u5350
Notes: • This is a character found in the “CJK Unified Ideographs” section of the Unicode specification. The transliteration equivalent is based on its code. The character name and this note have been added by the THL for this context.
Name:utsama ka
Glyph:
Unicode:0F880F90
EWTS:\u0F88+k
Name:utsama kha
Glyph:
Unicode:0F880F91
EWTS:\u0F88+kh
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F021
EWTS:\uF021
Notes: • The terton’s mark of Mingyur Rinpoche. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F022
EWTS:\uF022
Notes: • The terton’s mark of Ratna Lingpa. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F023
EWTS:\uF023
Notes: • The terton’s mark of Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche. (Tony Duff)
Name:Sambhota system terma mark 1
Glyph:
Unicode:F024
EWTS:\uF024
Name:Sambhota system terma mark 2
Glyph:
Unicode:F025
EWTS:\uF025
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F026
EWTS:\uF026
Notes: • A name less sign which shows either the seven successive Buddhas (a succession of seven Buddhas ending with Shakyamuni Buddha who gave the teaching on Dependent Related Origination) or the seven successive trustees of the Buddha’s teaching (the seven arhats who were entrusted with the lineage of the Buddha’s teaching following his parinirvana). (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F027
EWTS:\uF027
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F028
EWTS:\uF028
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F029
EWTS:\uF029
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02A
EWTS:\uF02A
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02B
EWTS:\uF02B
Notes: • Used frequently in Drukpa Kagyu literature where a shad is needed grammatically but where there is direct continuation to the next text. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02C
EWTS:\uF02C
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02D
EWTS:\uF02D
Notes: • A special terma mark used (in triplicate) to represent oM A hUM. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02E
EWTS:\uF02E
Notes: • A special terma mark sometimes also used as an ornament. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F02F
EWTS:\uF02F
Notes: • Bliss-swirl for placement above other letters. Used for instance to make Chokling Rinpoche’s terma mark. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F030
EWTS:\uF030
Notes: • A special mark used to mark consonants characters in tantric literature. (Tony Duff)
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F031
EWTS:\uF031
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F032
EWTS:\uF032
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F033
EWTS:\uF033
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F034
EWTS:\uF034
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F035
EWTS:\uF035
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F036
EWTS:\uF036
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F037
EWTS:\uF037
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F038
EWTS:\uF038
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F039
EWTS:\uF039
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03A
EWTS:\uF03A
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03B
EWTS:\uF03B
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03C
EWTS:\uF03C
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03D
EWTS:\uF03D
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03E
EWTS:\uF03E
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F03F
EWTS:\uF03F
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F040
EWTS:\uF040
Name:
Glyph:
Unicode:F041
EWTS:\uF041
Name:Sanskrit syllable: ithi
Glyph:
Unicode:F042
EWTS:\uF042
Notes: • This sign shows that a text is secret and is not to be transmitted to more than one student for a set number of generations of transmission. (Tony Duff)
Name:Tibetan transliteration of Chinese sound “f”
Glyph:
Unicode:0F55 0F39
EWTS:f
Name:Tibetan transliteration of Chinese sound “v”
Glyph:
Unicode:0F56 0F39
EWTS:v
#essay=/thl/ewts/