Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
Tibetan Buddhism at Wutai Shan in the Qing
Gray Tuttle, Columbia University
JIATS, no. 6 (December 2011), THL #T5721, pp. 163-214
Section 8 of 10 (pp. 187-192)

Appendix 1: Wutai shan Texts List98

(I have underlined editions that I consulted)

1661 Qingliang shan zhi [Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] (1596 reprint), preface by Awang Laozang.99
1667 Uta-yin tabun agulan-u oroshil süsügten-ü cikin cimeg [The Jewel Ornament of the Pious for the Five Mountains of Wutai] by Lobsang Danjin.100
1694 Qingliang shan xinzhi [New Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] edited, with a preface by Kangxi, reprint of the 1661 preface by Awang Laozang, and new preface by Laozang Danba (Lozang Tenpablo bzang bstan pa).101
1701 Qingliang shan xin zhi [New Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] (from the Gest Library) edited by Laozang Danba, imperial reprint.102
1701 Cing Liyang Shan agulan-u shine ji-bicig [New Guide [lit. Jataka] to Qingliang shan Mountain], Manchu translation of Qingliang shan xinzhi [New Qingliang shan Gazetteer], preface by the Kangxi emperor.103
1701 Manchu translation of Qingliang shan xinzhi [New Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer], imperial printing.104
1707 Qingliang shan xinzhi [New Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] reprint made.105
1721 Tabun üjegürtü agula-yin cadig [Guide to Five-Peaked Mountain], reprint of the 1667 edition with a different title.106
[page 188]
ca. 1715-1736 Tukwan Ngawang Chökyi GyatsoThu’u kwan ngag dbang chos kyi rgya mtsho’s text on juniper smoke offering requested by Jasagh Lama Lozang ChömpelBla ma blo bzang chos ’phel of Wutai shan’s Pusa Ding and Geshé Da Lama Trashi YarpelDge bshes da bla ma bkra shis yar ’phel of Shot-Tiger Stream (Sheehu Chönshee hu chon, Shehu chuan; another name for the Terrace Foothill Temple [Tailu Si], built by imperial order in the Kangxi era).107
between 1725-1750 Riwo Tsengé KarchakRi bo rtse lnga’i dkar chag [Guide to Wutai shan] by Gombojab (Gönpo Japmgon po skyabs).108
after publication of above Utayishan agula-yin adistid-tu sitüged-ece tabun jagun baṇdida-yin cadig orosiba [Jataka of the 500 Panditas Receiving Blessings at Wutai shan], translation of Gombojab’s work by TendzinBstan ’dzin.
1755 Qingliang shan zhi [Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] (from Harvard’s Yen-ching Library) Recarved blocks with new preface. Also preserves the preface of the 1661 edition.109
before late eighteenth century Karchak Lhünpö GyenDkar chag lhun po’i rgyan [Guide to the Ornamented Mountain], by Lama [Riwo]tsé Ngawa Pelden DrakpaBla ma [ri bo] rtse lnga ba dpal ldan grags pa.110 Non-extant.
1767 ChangjaLcang skya’s poem about Wutai shan. Included in TukwanThu’u bkwan’s biography of ChangjaLcang skya and in a post-1831 text, at the end of longer work listed below.111
between 1767-1786 Riwo Dangsil Karchak Jukma TsangpaRi bo dwangs bsil dkar chag mjugs ma tshang pa [Incomplete Guide to Clear and Cool Mountain], by the Monguor Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje; manuscript partial work of two chapters.112
[page 189]
between 1767-1786 Riwo Tsengé Zhidak Namla Torbül Trinchöl DordüRi bo rtse lnga’i gzhi bdag rnams la gtor ’bul ’phrin bcol mdor bsdus [Collected Rituals for Invoking Aid through the Offering of Sacrificial Cakes to the Local Deities of Wutai shan], by the Monguor ChangjaLcang skya; on propitiating the local deities of Wutai shan, included in volume five of his collected works, printed in early nineteenth century.113
1780 Qingliang shan jiyao [Summary of Clear and Cool Mountain] (from Harvard’s Yen-ching Library) with (imperial?) first preface dated 1779, and second dated 1780. Part of the Summary of the Shanxi Gazetteer but also existed independently in a portable edition (see below).114Ya De edited.115
post-1780 Qingliang shan jiyao [Summary of Clear and Cool Mountain] (from Harvard’s Yen-ching Library) first printed in the Shanxi zhi jiyao [Summary of the Shanxi Gazetteer] but also existed independently. Ya De edited, Wang Benzhi made the portable edition.116
1785 Qinding Qingliang shan zhi [Imperial Gazetteer of Clear and Cool Mountain]. Twenty-two-volume (juan) manuscript compiled by imperial order, only published by the palace in 1811.
1799 Riwo Tsengar Jelkapkyi Netö dang Drelwé Gur Jampel Gyepé Chötrin dang Düchen Khyeparchengyi NamshéRi bo rtse lngar mjal skabs kyi gnas bstod dang ’brel ba’i mgur ’jam dpal dgyes pa’i mchod sprin dang dus chen khyad par can gyi rnam bshad [Detailed Explanation of the Extraordinary Festivals and the Pleasing Cloud of Offerings for Manjusri: Spiritual Songs together with Praise of the Holy Place Encountered at Wutai shan] by [the Monguor?] Aja Yangchen Gawé LodröA skya dbyangs can dga’ ba’i blo gros.117
1811 Qinding Qingliang shan zhi [Imperial Gazetteer of Clear and Cool Mountain] in twenty-two volumes compiled by an imperial order, first printing.118
1812 Xixun sheng dian [Magnificent Record of the Western Tour] (from the Library of Congress), edited by Peng Lin. Record of the Jiaqing emperor’s journey to Wutai shan.119 Collected by Rockhill late nineteenth century.
[page 190]
1813 Riwo Dangsilgyi Jampel Tsenden Linggi Tsardukgi Kunyengyi Logyu Kortsé dang Chepa Deden Kyewö Trokyé Metok TrengdzéRi bo dwangs bsil gyi ’jam dpal mtshan ldan gling gi mtshar sdug gi sku brnyan gyi lo rgyu [sic] bskor tshad dang bcas pa dad ldan skye bo’i spro bskyed me tog ’phreng mdzes [A Beautiful Garland to Rouse the Faithful: A History and Circumambulation Survey of the Fine Statue in the Sandalwood Mañjuśrī Temple [Shuxiang Si] of Clear and Cool Mountain] (from the Library of Congress), bilingual Mongolian/Tibetan monastery guide to Shuxiang Si, by the Tümed Mongol Yeshé DöndrupYe shes don grub,120 by order of the Huiwu Chanshi GandenDga’ ldan Sheregetü Khutugtu Erdeni Nom-yin khan, Ngawang Tupten Wangchukden Trinlé GyatsoNgag dbang thub bstan dbang phyug ldan ’phrin las rgya mtsho (1773-?), Jasagh Da Lama, Beijing 1796.121
early nineteenth century. Riwo Dangsil Karchak Jukma TsangpaRi bo dwangs bsil dkar chag mjugs ma tshang pa [Incomplete Guide to Clear and Cool Mountain] (from the Library of Congress), by the Monguor Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje; the same two chapters printed in the author’s Collected Writings, probably in first decade of the nineteenth century.122

End of New Imperial Gazetteer Editions (No Clear Connection to Qing Court after 1813)123

1824 Riwo Tsengé Netö Dönden Tsangpé DrayangRi bo rtse lnga’i gnas bstod don ldan tshangs pa’i sgra dbyangs. Short poem in praise of Wutai shan by Gyel Khenpo Drakpa GyentsenRgyal mkhan po grags pa rgyal mtshan (1762-1836) from DoméMdo smad and Labrang Trashi KhyilBla brang bkra shis ’khyil.124
[page 191]
post-1827 Riwo Tsengé Karchak Rapsel MelongRi bo rtse lnga’i dkar chag rab gsal me long [The Clear Mirror: A Guide to Wutai shan] written by a man (probably a Mongol) known as Gelong Dznyana ShrimanDge slong dznyā na shrī man (Ye[shé] Pel[den]Ye [shes] dpal [ldan]).125
1831 Zhingchok Riwo Dangsilgyi Neshé Depé Pemo Gyejé Ngotsar Nyimé NangwaZhing mchog ri bo dwangs bsil gyi gnas bshad dad pa’i padmo rgyas byed ngo mtshar nyi ma’i snang ba [The Miraculous Sunlight that Makes the Lotus of Faith Increase: An Explanation of the Holy Place, the Excellent Region, of Clear and Cool Mountain]. So-called ChangjaLcang skya text, but actually all new material after Chapter Two, revised by Lochen Ngawang KelzangLo chen ngag dbang bskal bzang and Drotsang Khentrül LalopGro tshang mkhan sprul bla slob, with an appendix126 written by Changlung Arya PenditaLcang lung arya paṇḍita, Ngawang Lozang Tenpé GyentsenNgag dbang blo bzang bstan pa’i rgyal mtshan (1770-1845), a Mongol descendant of Genghis Khan (born in the Sunid Left Banner of Inner Mongolia) who paid for these blocks to be carved.127
post-1831 Zhingchok Riwo Dangsilgyi Neshé Depé Pemo Gyejé Ngotsar Nyimé NangwaZhing mchog ri bo dwangs bsil gyi gnas bshad dad pa’i padmo rgyas byed ngo mtshar nyi ma’i snang ba [The Miraculous Sunlight that Makes the Lotus of Faith Increase: An Explanation of the Holy Place, the Excellent Region, of Clear and Cool Mountain]. Later edition of text above, with the addition of ChangjaLcang skya’s 1767 poem appended to the text, and a new colophon. Printed at Zungdru ZéZung gru ze (Songzhu si, Beijing).128
1846 Panoramic Map of Wutai shan. Trilingual. Carved by Mongol monk at Cifu Si.
1870 Clear and Cool Land of Mañjuśrī. Imperially sponsored woodblock map.129
[page 192]
1884 Wutai shan Trilogy (from Harvard’s Yen-ching Library) printed (one Tang and two Song gazetteers).
1887 Qingliang shan zhi [Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer] (from Harvard’s Yen-ching Library). Reprint of 1755 blocks; Local sponsors.130
1905 Map depiction of Wutai shan and Southern Route to Wutai shan.131
1908 View of Wutai shan. Ink and color.132
No date. Wutai shan dao lu quan tu [Complete Maps of the Ways and Routes to Wutai shan]. Twenty-five pages, anonymous.133

[98] My thanks to Johan Elverskog for assistance with the translation of the Mongol and Manchu titles in this list.
[99] Preface preserved in Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi (1755), preface, 4. Since I did the research for this paper in the mid-1990s using original editions, a much more convenient modern reprint of this gazetteer has been reproduced in Gugong Bowuyuan, Qingliang shan zhi. I have preserved my original references, as they can easily be located in the new edition.
[100] Farquhar, “Emperor as Bodhisattva,” 30.
[101] Preface preserved in the Gest Library’s Qingliang shan xinzhi preface, 21-22.
[102] Preface preserved in Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi (1887 reprint), book 1, volume 4, 1-2; also in Yen-ching Library’s Wang Benzhi, ed., Qingliang shan jiyao (post-1780), first volume, 1-3 (though the date is missing). The 1701 version is preserved at Princeton University’s Gest Library.
[103] Farquhar, “Emperor as Bodhisattva,” 30.
[104] Köhle, “Why Did the Kangxi Emperor Go to Wutai Shan?” n. 28-29.
[105] Brook, Geographical Sources, original preserved only in Japan, though now available in a reprinted edition: Gugong Bowuyuan, ed., Qingliang shan zhi [Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer; 1661]. Qingliang shan xin zhi [New Clear and Cool Mountain Gazetteer; 1701]. Qinding Qingliang shan zhi [Imperial Gazetteer of Clear and Cool Mountain; 1811]. Haikou Shi: Hainan Chubanshe, 2001.
[106] By Lozang TenjinBlo bzang bstan ’jin, see Farquhar, “Emperor as Bodhisattva,” 30.
[107] Details from Köhle, “Why Did the Kangxi Emperor Go to Wutai Shan?”
[108] Vladimir Uspensky, “Gombojab: A Tibetan Buddhist in the Capital of the Qing Empire,” in Biographies of Eminent Mongol Buddhists, ed. Johan Elverskog (Halle: International Institute for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies, 2008). Uspensky noted that this was a thirteen-folio text. Another thirteen-folio text dedicated to Wutai shan attributed to Gelong Sönam RinchenDge slong bsod nams rin chen is located in the Nepal National Archives.
[109] See note on Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi 1887 reprint edition: some of the changes found in that edition were almost certainly incorporated in this initial recarving, which also preserved the preface of the 1661 edition. Since I was only able to examine the 1887 edition, I have listed the changes I found in that text under that item in this list.
[110] Noted in Dznyana ShrimanDznyā na shrī man, Riwo Tsengé Karchak Rapsel MelongRi bo rtse lnga’i dkar chag rab gsal me long (Zi ling: Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1994), i, 17. This must be the same text mentioned as being the inspiration for ChangjaLcang skya’s incomplete text, where it is described as the “ri bo rtse lnga mjal bar song skabs gnas kyi dkar chag rnying pa” by Lama [Riwo]tsé NgawaBla ma [ri bo] rtse lnga ba, Pelden DrakpaDpal ldan grags pa. TukwanThu’u bkwan noted that because Pelden DrakpaDpal ldan grags pa’s text was a rather poor translation of the Chinese text(s) on which it was based, it was difficult to understand, which prompted ChangjaLcang skya to start a new text. See Wen-shing Chou, “Ineffable Paths: Mapping Wutaishan in Qing Dynasty China,” the Art Bulletin 9, no. 1 (March 2007): 128, n. 30, citing Tuguan, Zhangjia Guoshi Ruobi duoji zhuan, 306; Tibetan original: TukwanThu’u bkwan, Changja Rölpé Dorjé NamtarLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje’i rnam thar, 504; see also Marina Illich, “Selections from the Life of a Tibetan Buddhist Polymath: Chankya Rolpai Dorje (Lcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje), 1717-1786” (PhD diss., Columbia University, 2006), 606-607, who used a different edition of ChangjaLcang skya’s biography.
[111] For a detailed treatment of ChangjaLcang skya’s time at Wutai shan and a translation of this poem, see Chapter 6 of Illich, “Selections from the Life.”
[112] Despite the fact that nearly everyone attributes the entire 1831 guide to Wutai shan to Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje, he appears to have only authored the first two chapters of the later 1831 printing, as indicated in the colophon of that later work, and noted in his biography. See Illich, “Selections from the Life,” 606-607.
[113] Now available as a downloadable scan on-line (by subscription) from the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (www.tbrc.org) in vol. 5 of the author’s collected works (TBRC W28833).
[114] Two copies are at the Yen-ching Library: one contained in first and last volumes of Summary of the Shanxi Gazetteer, the second as a separate set. Contains poems written by the Yongzheng emperor, first volume, 25-28a.
[115] Brook, Geographical Sources, 126.
[116] Brook, Geographical Sources, 126.
[117] See the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center website for the full text. Although it is unclear whether this figure was one in the lineage of the incarnation series of the Aja ZhapdrungA skya zhabs drung (Akya Zhapdrung in Standard Tibetan pronunciation) based at KumbumSku ’bum, he was clearly from the Aja DéA skya sde (Akya Dé in Standard Tibetan pronunciation; from the Chinese a jia: "A household") community, which suggests that he may have been a Mongour.
[118] Although this text was supposed to be held in the Library of Congress collection (according to Brook, Geographical Sources, 126), the librarians could not locate it, and I was not able to use a version of this gazetteer while initially doing research on this topic. Since I completed the Chinese-language research for this paper in the mid-1990s using original editions, a much more convenient modern reprint of this gazetteer has been reproduced by the Gugong, which is the edition I consulted in revising this article.
[119] Wen-shing Chou, “Ineffable Paths,” 120. See also Patricia Berger, “The Jiaqing Emperor’s Magnificent Record of the Western Tour,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5711.
[120] Heissig, Die Pekinger lamaistischen Blockdrucke in mongolischer Sprache; Materialien zur mongolischen Literaturgeschichte (Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz, 1954), 163-64, cited in Farquhar, “Emperor as Bodhisattva,” 30, n. 88. Heissig says this author used both the 1667 and 1721 Mongol editions of Wutai shan gazetteers. Yeshé DöndrupYe shes don grub was from Big Buddha Temple (Dafo si), which Heissig says is Zhantan Si, the famous Tibetan Buddhist monastery in Beijing, though Robert Service (“Notes on The Beautiful Flower Chaplet: A Nineteenth Century Mongolian Guide to the Shu-hsiang Szŭ of Wu-t’ai shan,” Mongolian Studies [2007]: 29, 192) says that Big Buddha Temple is another name for Puning Si in Chengde. In the Tibetan translation of the text, I could find no reference to the Qing emperor as Mañjuśrī, which is mentioned by Farquhar as existing in the Mongol version (without reference to where it occurred in the text). The Library of Congress copy was obtained by Berthold Laufer (labeled T12 of his materials in the Library of Congress).
[121] According to Kurtis R. Schaeffer: “An example of a widespread genre that cannot be traced back any further than the Desi, but exploded in Amdo. The skor tshad is a ‘circumambulation survey.’ The five-chapter outline of that work really reads like other skor tshad.” Schaeffer, personal communication, May 2007. For more on this genre of text, see Schaeffer, “Ritual, Festival and Authority,” 192, n. 17. On the Mongol version of this text, see Service, “Notes on The Beautiful Flower Chaplet,” 180-201.
[122] Thanks to Gene Smith and PeldorDpal rdor of the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center for searching their two editions for indications of the date the blocks were carved. Since neither of the editions indicated this date, this dating is based on oral history about the collected works. Personal communication, Gene Smith 1/30/2007. A version of this text is available in the Rockhill collection (no. 38) of the Library of Congress. Now available as a downloadable scan on-line (by subscription) from the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center (www.tbrc.org), the final text in vol. 7 of the author’s collected works.
[123] The one possible exception in the 1870 map, said to be imperially sponsored, but I have not seen this item to confirm its association with the imperial household.
[124] Drakpa Gyentsen, Gyel KhenpoGrags pa rgyal mtshan, rgyal mkhan po, Riwo Tsengé Netö Dönden Tsangpé DrayangRi bo rtse lnga’i gnas bstod don ldan tshangs pa’i sgra dbyangs, in Gangjong Khewang Rimjöngyi Tsomyik Sergyi DrambuGangs ljongs mkhas dbang rim byon gyi rtsom yig gser gyi sbram bu [Zangzu lidai wenxue zuopin xuan] (Zi ling: Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1989 [1824]), vol. 3, 1445-55.
[125] See Dznyana ShrimanDznyā na shrī man, Riwo Tsengé Karchak Rapsel MelongRi bo rtse lnga’i dkar chag rab gsal me long, 186. The seventh year of the Taoguang (Sriö Gyelposrid ’od rgyal po) reign is mentioned. Blocks carved by: 1) YangjaYang kyā (Yangkya in Standard Tibetan pronunciation; yang jia) Gelong Lozang TsültrimDge slong blo bzang tshul khrims, 2) ChijaChi kyā (Chikya in Standard Tibetan pronunciation; qi jia) Gelong Sherap ZangpoDge slong shes rab bzang po 3) Deden Riu LhazoDad ldan ri’u lha bzo (the faithful artisan RiuRi’u, probably Ch. Liu). The occurrence of the Chinese family names Yang and Qi probably indicates that these men were Monguors. On the Qi family in AmdoA mdo, see Elliot Sperling, “A Note on the Chi-kya Tribe and the Two Qi Clans in Amdo,” in Les habitants du Toit du monde, edited by Samten Karmay and Phillipe Sagant (Nanterre: Société d’ethnologie, 1997), 111-24.
[126] See Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje, Zhingchok Riwo Tsengé NeshéZhing mchog ri bo rtse lnga’i gnas bshad (Zi ling: Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe sgrun khang, 1993), 204.
[127] For an early reference to this 1831 edition, see Leonard van der Kuijp, “Jayanada. A Twelfth Century Guoshi from Kashmir among the Tangut,” Central Asiatic Journal 37 (1993): 193, n. 16. The colophon indicates that the first part was at least orally transmitted by Rölpé DorjéRol pa’i rdo rje (and was later printed first as part of Rölpé DorjéRol pa’i rdo rje’s collected writings). Possibly the latter part of this text was drafted by ChangjaLcang skya but was deemed too erroneous to be included in his collected works. The colophon to the 1831 printing says that the latter part (chapters 3-5?) were stylistically revised and faulty translations from the Chinese Wutai shan gazetteer were corrected (See ChangjaLcang skya, Zhingchok Riwo Tsengé NeshéZhing mchog ri bo rtse lnga’i gnas bshad, 207-208). See also ChanglungLcang lung’s short biographies at the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center and in Dungkar Lozang TrinléDung dkar blo bzang ’phrin las, Khewang Dungkar Lozang Trinlé Chokgi Dzepé Bö Rikpé Tsikdzö Chenmo Sheja RapselMkhas dbang dung dkar blo bzang ’phrin las mchog gis mdzad pa’i bod rig pa’i tshig mdzod chen mo shes bya rab gsal [Dungkar’s Great Tibetological Dictionary], aka Dungkar TsikdzöDung dkar tshig mdzod (Pe cin: Krung go’i bod rig pa’i dpe skrun khang; Mtsho sngon zhing chen zhin hwa dpe tshong khang gis bkram, 2002), 800. His full biography discussed his encounters with Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje (who recognized him as an incarnation), his visits to Wutai shan, and the printing of this text. See, Rgyal dbang chos rje blo bzang ’phrin las rnam rgyal, Jetsün Pelden Lama Dampa Changlung Arya Pendita Rinpoché Ngawang Lozang Tenpé Gyentsen Pelzangpö Nampar Tarpa Khepé Yitrok Norbü DoshelRje btsun dpal ldan bla ma dam pa lcang lung arya pandi ta rin po che ngag dbang blo bzang bstan pa’i rgyal mtshan dpal bzang po’i rnam par thar pa mkhas pa’i yid ’phrog nor bu’i do shal, digital scan from the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center, vol. 1: 93, 203-208, 233-236; vol. 2: 181-182 (on printing these blocks). My thanks to Kurtis Schaeffer for these page references.
[128] Changja Rölpé DorjéLcang skya rol pa’i rdo rje, et al. Zhingchok Riwo Tsengé NeshéZhing mchog ri bo rtse lnga’i gnas bshad, in Neyik ChokdrikGnas yig phyogs bsgrigs [Fo jiao sheng di zhi nan], by Gendün ChömpelDge ’dun chos ’phel, et al. (Khreng tu’u: Si khron mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1998), 384-565. Additions to text start on page 585.
[129] Wen-shing Chou, “Mapping Landscapes of Transformations: A Sino-Tibetan Revelation of Wutaishan in Qing China” (Master’s thesis, University of California-Berkeley History of Art Department, 2006), illustration list. Date based on National Library of Beijing’s assessment.
[130] Definitely not simply a reprint of 1596 edition. Peppered with additions and changes: 1) At the end of one section a note about the special tree from the Shunzhi period is added (See Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi [1887 reprint], book 1, volume 3, 13). For more on this tree and its relation to the Dalai Lama, see the Gest Library edition. 2) Kangxi preface added to Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi (1887 reprint), book 1, volume 4, 1-2. 3) In the biography of the Karmapa, Taizong wen huangdi (太宗文皇帝, Taitsungtha’i tsung) Hongtaiji (r. 1627-1644) is mentioned (See Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi [1887 reprint], book 3, volume 8, 22b; partially translated by Sperling, “Early Ming Policy Toward Tibet,” 117). 4) Additional biographies dating from the Qing, two from Kangxi and two from Qianlong reign-periods (See Yen-ching Library’s Qingliang shan zhi [1887 reprint], book 3, volume 8, 30-32, 35-36).
[131] Chou, “Mapping Landscapes,” illustration list, no. 11. Date presumably based on National Library of Beijing’s assessment.
[132] Chou, “Mapping Landscapes,” illustration list, no. 10. Date presumably based on National Library of Beijing’s assessment
[133] Listed by Brook (Geographical Sources, 45) as held in Library of Congress, though it does not appear in on-line catalogue.

Note Citation for Page

Gray Tuttle, “Tibetan Buddhism at Wutai Shan in the Qing: The Chinese-language Register,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): , http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5721 (accessed ).

Note Citation for Whole Article

Gray Tuttle, “Tibetan Buddhism at Wutai Shan in the Qing: The Chinese-language Register,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): 163-214, http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5721 (accessed ).

Bibliography Citation

Tuttle, Gray. “Tibetan Buddhism at Wutai Shan in the Qing: The Chinese-language Register.” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): 163-214. http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5721 (accessed ).