Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
The Thirteenth Dalai Lama at Wutai Shan
Elliot Sperling, Indiana University
JIATS, no. 6 (December 2011), THL #T5720, pp. 389-410
Notes

Notes

[1] William Woodville Rockhill, “The Dalai Lamas of Lhasa and Their Relations with the Manchu Emperors of China, 1644-1908,” T’oung p’ao 11 (1910): 1-104.
[2] Rockhill, “Dalai Lamas of Lhasa,” 103-4.
[3] Kenneth Wimmel, William Woodville Rockhill, Scholar-Diplomat of the Tibetan Highlands (Bangkok: Orchid Press, 2003): 168. Rockhill’s two meetings with the Dalai Lama and his impressions of the hierarch are discussed in greater detail by Susan Meinheit of the Library of Congress in her article in this collection: Susan Meinheit, “Gifts at Wutai Shan: Rockhill and the Thirteenth Dalai Lama,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5717.
[4] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, Lharché Sizhi Tsukgyen Gongsa Gyelwé Wangpo Kadrin Tsungmé Kutreng Chuksumpa Chenpö Nampar Tarpa Gyamtso Tabulé Dotsam Jöpa Ngotsar Rinpoché TrengwaLhar bcas srid zhi’i gtsug rgyan gong sa rgyal ba’i dbang po bka’ drin mtshungs med sku phreng bcu gsum pa chen po’i rnam par thar pa rgya mtsho lta bu las mdo tsam brjod pa ngo mtshar rin po che’i phreng ba [A Garland of Precious Miracles: A Brief Elucidation Drawn from the Oceanic Biography of the Crown of Samsara and Nirvana, and of Gods, His Holiness, the Matchlessly Kind Great Thirteenth Dalai Lama], in the Collected Works of Dalai Lama XIII, vols. 6 and 7 (New Delhi: International Academy of Indian Culture, 1982). This edition is a photographic reproduction of the original block print of the text. A typeset version of this work is also available as Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, in Pakpa Jikten Wangchukgi Namtrül Rimjöngyi Trungrap Depter Norbü Trengwa’Phags pa ’jig rten dbang phyug gi rnam sprul rim byon gyi ’khrungs rabs deb ther nor bu’i phreng ba [The Jewel Garland Annals: The Successive Incarnations of Āryalokeśvara], vol. 5 (Dharamsala: Sherig Parkhang, 1998). In preparing this paper I have had to use the clearly-printed 1998 volume as a check against the sometimes smudged or indistinct leaves in the 1982 printing. All references in this paper, however, are to volume 7 of the 1982 edition. This work is clearly the basis for the chronology of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s life contained in Danzhu Angben (丹珠昂奔, Döndrup WangbumDon grub dbang ’bum), Libei Dalai Lama yu Banchen E’erdeni nianpu [Chronicle of the Genealogy of the Dalai Lama and Bainqen Erdeni] (Beijing: Zhongyang minzu daxue, 1998): 341-416. On the circumstances of Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin’s composition of the biography, see 326a.1-327a.4.
[5] As will be seen below, when the question of the Dalai Lama’s audience with Carl Gustaf Mannerheim (then a Russian military officer) is discussed it becomes clear that Rockhill’s audience may well have happened some days before the start of the fifth Tibetan month.
[6] See Changja Rölpé DorjéLcangs skya rol pa’i rdo rje, Zhing mchog ri bo dwangs bsil gyi gnas bshad dad pa’i padmo rgyas byed ngo mtshar nyi ma’i snang ba (Xining: Mtsho sngon mi rigs dpe skrun khang, 1993), 28: phu sa ting. This is the well-known temple on the slopes of the middle peak Wutai Shan; it is home to the Wutai Shan Jasagh Lama. The central peak is also known as Lingjiu Feng due to its supposed resemblance to Gŗdhrakūța in India (see: 27-28). A number of temples are noted in its vicinity (see, for example: 39-40, 43, 44, etc.) in addition to Pusa Ding.
[7] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, Ngotsar Rinpoché TrengwaNgo mtshar rin po che’i phreng ba [A Garland of Precious Miracles], 47a.3-47b.2: mig go’i pi cing chin khral nbo g.yog gnyis mjal bcar skabs phu gsar steng gi rdo skas ring mo’i ’gor rgya dmag gzims ’gag tu bod dmag dang / rim pa bzhi pa yan gyis brang ban zhus/ sku mdun du slebs ’phral ’dul ba mkhan pos skad sgyur bgyis te phan tshun bka’ mtshams dang / mjal dar sne sprod/ phyag rtags ’bul bzhes bcas grub rjes khri’u shing la ’dug tu bcug nas dkar spro shing ’bras dang / gsol ja stsal/ legs dar zhig gnang ba re zhig lag par nyar nas glo bur ske la gon te phyir log chin khral ’di pa gzims chung ’gag tu ’byor mtshams char pa rdog che ’ga’ zhig babs pas rten ’bral legs par mngon/ …mig go’i chin khral thon mjal du bcar skabs gnang cha gzab rgyas dang / lo tsā brgyud bka’ mtshams zhib lhug gnang zhing / thon khar chin khral rang nas bod skad kyis phyag dbang gnang dgos zhus pa ltar dgyes bzhin stsal bas dga’ ba dang mgu ba’i rnam ’gyur du ma dang bcas tā la’i bla ma’i dgongs bzhed dang mthun par bstan pa’i zhabs ’degs gang thub zhu rgyu’i khas len mang po zhus/.
[8] The Dalai Lama’s arrival at Wutai Shan is noted in Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 40v; and Zhongguo diyi lishi dang’anguan and Zhongguo Zangxue yanjiu zhongxin, eds., Qingmo Shisan shi Dalai Lama dang’an shiliao xuanbian [清末十三世达赖喇嘛档案史料选编, Selected Archival Historical Materials on the Thirteenth Dalai Lama during the Late Qing] (Beijing: Zhongguo Zangxue chubanshe, 2002), 128-29. The latter source records the official memorials reporting his arrival and the date given there is taken as the actual date of arrival. The date given by Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin (40a.1-2) is the eighteenth day of what is otherwise given (38a.2-3) as the first month of the Earth-Monkey Year (1908/1909). This would be an auspicious day in the Tibetan calendar and, as such, a day to be repeated, thus covering both the twentieth and twenty-first of March. However, the previous year had (34b) an intercalary Tibetan twelfth month and there seems to have been some confusion occasioned by this fact. As it turns out, the eighteenth day of that intercalary month is February 20, 1908, the correct date for the Dalai Lama’s arrival at Wutai Shan. Danzhu Angben, Nianpu, 384, follows the unamended chronology of Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin.
[9] Danzhu Angben, Nianpu, 384, says he stayed at the Pusa “lodging palace” (qingong, 寝宫).
[10] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 40b.6.
[11] “Buddhists Ruler Long a Wanderer,” New York Times, July 13, 1908. Axel Odelberg and Hertig Larson, Äventyrare, Missionär, Upptäckare (Stockholm: Wahlström & Widstrand, 2003), 176-83, recount a shopping expedition to Shanghai undertaken for the Dalai Lama after he had arrived in Beijing. Some twenty thousand dollars were spent on Western goods (some for presentation to the empress dowager) over three days. I am grateful to Johan Elverskog for this reference.
[12] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 39a.5.
[13] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 39b.2-5.
[14] See Qingji Zhongwai shiling nianbiao [清季中外使領年表, Yearly Tables of Chinese and Foreign Ambassadors and Consular Personnel of the Late Qing] (Taipei: Wenhai chubanshe, 1986), 134.
[15] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 42a.3-5: rde go’i than cing du sdod pa’i rgya dpon zhig gis phyag rtags phul te mjal kha zhus/ ja gral/ dkar spros shing ’bras bcas stabs te lo tsā brgyud bka’ mtshams gnang bar/ skyabs mgon chen po’i sku’i gzi brjid ma bzod pas bka’ lan zhu rgyu kha nas ma thon par phyi lugs kyi phyag ’tshal zhus te yud cig ’dar zir zir bsdad/ thung si rgya mi gcig ’dug pa der ’dul ba’i mkhan po nas bka’ mtshams skad bsgyur gyis brjod pas de yang kha la smra bcad kyi gryas btab pa ltar zhu lan ma spobs par gzugs po ’dar bzhin du lus pa zhig byung bar grags so/.
Danzhu Angben, Nianpu, 384, identifies the official in question as the French consul in Tianjin and simply notes that he came to see the Dalai Lama and held a discussion with him (Faguo zhu Tianjin de waijiaoguan qianlai kanwang bing jinxingle jiaotan, 法国驻天津的外交官前来看望, 并进行了交谈).
[16] See the Bayer KhenpoSba yer mkhan poLoptenBlo bstan from Beijing, who greeted the Dalai Lama just before he reached Wutai Shan in Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 38a.5. As for the title, Bayer KhenpoSba yer mkhan po, note that the GomangSgo mang abbot Tenpa ChömpelBstan pa chos ’phel (1840-1907) had been sent to China when he was thirty-eight years of age as “Bayer LamaRba yer bla ma.” See DöndorDon rdor and Tendzin ChödrakBstan ’dzin chos grags, Gangjong Logyü Tokgi Drakchen MinaGangs ljongs lo rgyus thog gi grags can mi sna [Famous Historical Personages of the Land of Snows] (LhasaLha sa: Bod ljongs mi dmangs dpe skrun khang: 1993), 934.
[17] Further Papers Relating to Tibet [Cd 5240] (London: His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1910), 146.
[18] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 46a.1.
[19] See Scott Berry, Monks, Spies and a Soldier of Fortune. The Japanese in Tibet (London: Athlone, 1995), 6. Note, however, that Berry dates the meeting to August, 1908.
[20] Further Papers, 159.
[21] “Dalai Lama at Ting-Chow,” New York Times, Sept. 29, 1908. C. G. Mannerheim, Across Asia: From West to East in 1906-1908 (Oosterhout N.B.: Anthropological Publications, 1969), 688, numbers his suite and other attendants at three hundred.
[22] “Buddhists Ruler Long a Wanderer,” New York Times, July 13, 1908.
[23] “Lama Coming to Peking,” New York Times, August 19, 1908.
[24] Christopher Irving [=Reginald Johnston], “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama.” The New China Review 1, no. 2 (1919): 151-63.
[25] Irving, “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama,” 156-57. Johnston describes Wang Fanglin as a garrison soldier from Datong.
[26] Irving, “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama,” 157.
[27] Irving, “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama,” 160.
[28] Irving, “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama,” 161.
[29] Irving, “Wu-t’ai-shan and the Dalai Lama,” 161.
[30] L. Austine Waddell, Lhasa and its Mysteries (London: John Murray, 1905), 30, refers to the Fifth Dalai Lama as “this unscrupulous despot posing as the earthly incarnation of the Gentle Buddha.” Towards the Thirteenth he was hardly more positive (38-39): “His sham pretensions to divinity did not shield his sacred predecessors from being deposed, imprisoned, and even murdered by their own people… and they are not likely now to protect him and his hosts of vampire priests from the results of his present hostile policy.”
[31] Vicomte [Henri] D’Ollone, In Forbidden China (Boston: Small Maynard and Company, 1912), 305:

…[It] was drawn from a sketch made by me the moment I left the temple, with the help of photographs taken the following day as the long procession set forth… [T]he costumes of the lamas are those which they wore on the following day. During my reception all were wearing capes of cloth of gold, and were bareheaded, as was the Dalai-Lama.

[32] D’Ollone, In Forbidden China, 305.
[33] D’Ollone, In Forbidden China, 306-307.
[34] Well before the death in 1891 of Mme. H. P. Blavatsky, the Theosophical Society’s founder and guiding light, the society’s acolytes were being led to believe that she had traveled in Tibet and been the recipient of occult training there. See, for example, Vicente Hao Chin Jr., ed., The Mahatma Letters to A.P. Sinnett (Manila: Theosphical Publishing House, 1993), 79.
[35] As already noted, the Dalai Lama’s biography indicates that Rockhill visited the Dalai Lama at the beginning of the fifth month of the Tibetan Earth-Monkey Year (June 29-July 28, 1908) and the Russian “military officer” (makpöndmag dpon; that is, Mannerheim), shortly afterwards. Given the specific date noted by Mannerheim, and the fact that Rockhill described his audiences with the Dalai Lama in a letter to U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt dated June 30, 1908 (Wimmel, William Woodville Rockhill, 168, 228) we must assume that the audiences took place a few days earlier than the beginning of the fifth Tibetan month. The sequence of the audiences is as described in the Tibetan biography: on June 25, the day Mannerheim reached Wutai Shan he encountered the Chinese official named “Weng” who was leaving the site, having been dispatched there in connection with “the recent visit of the American Ambassador to the Dalai Lama.” See Mannerheim, Across Asia, 687.
[36] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 47b.4: ru su’i dmag dpon sa skor ba mjal bcar la blo mos dang mtshams pa’i bka’ mchid stsal/.
[37] Mannerheim, Across Asia, 689.
[38] Mannerheim, Across Asia, 692-693. Reginald Johnston noted that Wang Fanglin had two civil officials with him and it is reasonable to suppose that Mannerheim’s “Weng” was one of them. According to Mannerheim (687), Weng was an official with the “Yangwutu” at Taiyuanfu. Mannerheim’s transcriptions of Chinese are not standard or precise and we can assume that Weng was actually with the provincial Yangwuju (洋務局) or “Office of Foreign Affairs.”
[39] This is a reference to Dmitri Pokotilov, who had met with the Dalai Lama when the latter was in Mongolia. He died on March 7, 1908; see the Yearly Tables of Chinese and Foreign Ambassadors and Consular Personnel of the Late Qing, 36.
[40] Mannerheim, Across Asia, 693-694. I am grateful to Johan Elverskog for drawing my attention to Mannerheim’s diary of his trip through Asia as a source for the Dalai Lama’s stay at Wutai Shan.
[41] See Tatiana Shaumian, Tibet: The Great Game and Tsarist Russia (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2000), 90-125.
[42] Tupten Jampa Tsültrim TendzinThub bstan byams pa tshul khrims bstan ’dzin, A Garland of Precious Miracles, 50b.1-5: skabs shig tu ru su’i rgyal po stobs ’byor dang / mnga’ thang shin tu che ba zhig gis gong sa chen bo’i snyan pa rgyang nas thos te nang blon hong se zhes pa zhig ri bo rtse lngar ched du mngags nas ’bul dngos rgya che dang bcas rgyal por rigs brgyud ’dzin pa’i sras shig yong ba’i skyabs ’jug zhus par zhal bzhes bzang po stsal cing / ring por ma thogs par rgyal po der ru su’i rigs dang gtan mi ’dra ba’i bod phrug gi byad dbyibs can gyi sras khyad ’phags shig btsas pas gong sa chen po’i byin mthu dang / nang pa’i chos lugs la yid ches mos par gyur te yul der sngar med pa’i nang pa’i lha khang dang dge ’dun gyi gnas gzhi ’ga’ zhig gsar du bskrun nas phyag mchod sri zhu bgyid pa dang / sras de la’ang tā la’i bla ma’i sras zhes ’bod par grags/ de’i phyi lo gong sa mchog rgya nag nas sku ’bum du phyir phebs skabs ru su’i rgyal po nas nang blon hong se zer ba slar yang sku gam du brdzangs nas sras byung ba’i thugs rje legs ’bul dngul dngos rgya chen po phul/ de bzhin du sog po’i dpon khag mang pos bu’i don du gsol ba btab pa ltar gang la gang ’dod yid bzhin du byung ba’i dan rtags brjod kyis mi lang ba yod/.
This episode is dealt with by Danzhu Angben, with some discreet omissions: “The Russian emperor dispatched the interior minister Huangsi to Wutai Shan pay his respects and to offer generous gifts. This was in response to the [Dalai Lama’s] prayers that a prince would be born who would continue the line.” (Eguo Huangdi tepai neiwu dachen Huangsi qianlai Wutai Shan yejian, bing fengxian fenghou de liwu. Daying wei guowang you yige jiwei zhi wangzi jiangsheng er qidao, 俄国皇帝特派内务大臣黄斯前来五台山谒见,并奉献丰厚的礼物。答应为国王有一个继位之王子降生而祈祷; Danzhu Angben, Nianpu, 385).
[43] See Shaumian, The Great Game, 118-19.
[44] Isabelle Charleux, “Mongol Pilgrimages to Wutai Shan in the Late Qing Dynasty,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5712.
[45] Johan Elverskog, “Wutai Shan, Qing Cosmopolitanism, and the Mongols,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5715.
[46] Paul K. Nietupski, “Bla brang Monastery and Wutai Shan,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5718.
[47] Gray Tuttle, “Tibetan Buddhism at Wutai Shan in the Qing: The Chinese-language Register,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011), http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5721.

Note Citation for Page

Elliot Sperling, “The Thirteenth Dalai Lama at Wutai Shan: Exile and Diplomacy,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): , http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5720 (accessed ).

Note Citation for Whole Article

Elliot Sperling, “The Thirteenth Dalai Lama at Wutai Shan: Exile and Diplomacy,” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): 389-410, http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5720 (accessed ).

Bibliography Citation

Sperling, Elliot. “The Thirteenth Dalai Lama at Wutai Shan: Exile and Diplomacy.” Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 6 (December 2011): 389-410. http://www.thlib.org?tid=T5720 (accessed ).