Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
by John Vincent Bellezza
Edited by Geoffrey Barstow, Mickey Stockwell and Michael White
Tibetan & Himalayan Library
Published under the THL Digital Text License.

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2. Tables of the Names and Locations of All Archaic Monuments and Rock Art Sites Documented to Date

Questions concerning the accuracy of site names

Site names represent the monument itself and/or the topograph on which it is situated. The names provided are those in current usage in local drokpa’brog pa communities, and, in most cases, probably bear little resemblance to the original appellations assigned the various archaic monuments. An inspection of the site names reveals that the majority are toponymic and belong to localized vernacular traditions. The identification of site names was, in nearly all cases, accomplished with the aid of local informants. In the absence of literary references, the accuracy of such designations in a historical sense is difficult to corroborate. An indeterminate proportion of site names likely represent conceptions that are not well rooted in historical tradition, let alone representative of the original denomination.

When the individual elements/words making up names could be reasonably established, the spellings given can be seen as reliable and reflect standard Tibetan orthography. When the individual elements of names could not be established with any degree of certainty, the spellings presented must be seen as provisional. These provisional spellings reflect local pronunciation and were often obtained in written form from informants. Provisional spellings are of two possible variations: 1) word elements that have no known etymology, and 2) corrupted spellings or vernacularisms of words with a standardized orthography. There are also cases where the identity of a word element is in question, due to the ambiguity of the toponymic information obtained. In the tables, uncertain spellings and site names with questionable word elements are designated: (?).

English equivalents

In the following tables of sites, English equivalents of the Tibetan word elements are provided wherever appropriate. The rendering of names into English, however, should not be viewed as a translation (the conveyance of precise semantic values) per se. Without a clear etymological context, based on local tradition (legends, myths, history, etc.), the signification of toponyms cannot be determined with any degree of certainty. In fact, the meaning of place names may vary greatly from the sum of their individual word elements. In some cases, informants could be queried on the significance of place names and the oral traditions associated with them. The information thus received has been used to properly select the English equivalents of the Tibetan word elements. Where there is doubt surrounding the accuracy of the English equivalents provided, they are designated: (?).

I.1. Residential Structures Occupying Summits253

  1. I.1a: All-stone corbelled buildings
  2. I.1b: Edifices built with timbers
  3. I.1c: Solitary rampart networks
  4. I.1x: Indeterminate subtype254
Type Site number Site name English Equivalent County
I.1a A-1 DzongserRdzong ser Yellow Fortress ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1x A-2 DzongnakRdzong nag Black Fortress ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1a?255 A-3 Shawa DrakSha ba brag Deer Rock ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1x A-4 Ombu Dzong’Om bu rdzong/ Yumdruk Tsen DzongG.yu ’brug btsan rdzong Turquoise Dragon Fortress of the Tsenbtsan NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-5 Dangra Khyung DzongDang ra khyung rdzong Horned Eagle Fortress of Dang ra NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-6 Gyampé DzongGyam pa’i rdzong Fortress of the Cliff Shelter NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-7 Arpo DzongAr po rdzong NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-8 Drak Dongwu Tsé DzongBrag gdong dbu rtse rdzong/Dragchungwu TséBrag chung dbu rtse Rock Face Peak Fortress/Small Rock Formation Peak Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-9 Gyangpé Tsuk DzongGyang pa’i gtsug rdzong Acme Fortress of Walls NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-10 Chuktso Drokpo DzongPhyug tsho grog po rdzong Wealthy Camp Ravine Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-11 TsenrakTsan rag NyimaNyi ma
I.1a? A-12 Serdzö DzongSer mdzod rdzong Yellow Treasury Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1a? A-13 Zhingchen MönkharZhing chen mon mkhar Great Farm MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1a? A-14 Shanglü Podrang MönkharShang klu’i pho brang mon mkhar Shang lutsenklu btsan Palace MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-15 Nyachu DzongkarNya chu rdzong dkar Fish River White Fortress RutokRu thog
I.1b A-16 Khurang KhargokKhu rang mkhar gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-17 Rutok Shanpé KharRu thog bshan pa’i mkhar/ DzongriRdzong ri RutokRu thog Butcher’s Castle / Fortress Mountain RutokRu thog
I.1a? A-18 DrakdongBrag gdong Rock Formation Face RutokRu thog
I.1a A-19 Lokpuk KharGlog phug mkhar Lightning Cave Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-20 Hangdel DzongHang dal rdzong NyimaNyi ma
I.1b A-21 Drarong Mön DzongGra rong mon rdzong DraGra256 Gorge MönMon Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1b A-22 Zhingkhar KhargokZhing mkhar mkhar gog Castle Ruins Farm Castle GarSgar
I.1a A-23 Apa Drekar Pungpa MönkharA pha ’dre dkar spungs pa mon mkhar Father White dré’dre Heap MönMon Castle GarSgar
I.1x A-24 MutiṂu ti PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-25 Dragu TaraBra gu rta ra tragubra gu’s Horse Corral Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.1a? A-26 Tamchok Ngangpa DoRta mchog ngang pa do Orange Excellent Horse Headland PelgönDpal mgon
I.1x A-27 Kyeri Trowo Topgyel KharKye ri khro bo stobs rgyal mkhar257 Kyeri Trowo Topgyel KharKye ri khro bo stobs rgyal mkhar (Kye Mountain Trowo Topgyel’s Castle) NakchuNag chu
I.1x A-28 Shamdong DrakkharGsham gdong brag mkhar Basal Hole White Rock Formation Castle NakchuNag chu
I.1c A-29 Bidza MaktapsaBis rdza dmag ’thab sa (?) BidzaBis rdza Battleground GertséSger rtse
I.1a? A-30 Mönkhar SernakMon mkhar ser nag Yellow and Black MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-31 Pangar Zhungkhang GokDpa’ ngar gzhung khang gog258 Ruined Houses of Mighty Hero Pasture GegyéDge rgyas
I.1x A-32 Sharo MöndurSha ro mon dur Deer Corpse MönMon Tombs (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-33 Kapren GyanggokSkabs ren gyang gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-34 Tserlung KharnakMtsher lung mkhar nag TserMtsher Valley Black Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-35 Drak PukBrag phug Rock Formation Cave RutokRu thog
I.1b A-36 TsamaRtsa ma RutokRu thog
I.1x A-37 Mikpa KharruRmigs pa mkhar ru Lizard Castle Division RutokRu thog
I.1x A-38 Melong Mön KharMe long mon mkhar Mirror MönMon Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-39 Dinglep NgönpoSdings leb sngon po Blue Flattened Eminence RutokRu thog
I.1b A-40 ChukhargyamChu mkhar gyam Water Castle Cliff Shelter RutokRu thog
I.1x A-41 Ching SerpoPhying ser po (?) Yellow Felt (?) GarSgar
I.1b A-42 Chonggok MönkharMchong gog mon mkhar Ruined Agate MönMon Castle (?) GarSgar
I.1b A-43 Malung KharMa lung mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-44 Agok KharA gog mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-45 Khyunglung Ngül KharKhyung lung dngul mkhar Horned Eagle Valley Silver Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1a? A-46 Gang Tisé Bön KharGangs ti se’i bon mkhar BönBon Castle of Gang TiséGangs ti se PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-47 Lumo Podrang MöndoKlu mo pho brang mon rdo Female Water Spirits Palace MönMon Stones GegyéDge rgyas
I.1c A-48 Nam DzongGnam rdzong Sky Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1a A-49 Dzong PipiRdzong pi phi Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1c A-50 Takzik NordzongStag gzig nor rdzong Tiger Leopard Jewel Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1a, I.1b A-51 Wangchuk Gönpo KharDbang phyug mgon po mkhar Castle of Wangchuk GonpoDbang phyug mgon po Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1x A-52 KharchenMkhar chen/Mapang Pömo KharMa pang spos mo mkhar Great Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-53 Gya Nyima KharRgya nyi ma mkhar Big Sun Castle (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-54 Jomo Rirang KharJo mo ri rang mkhar Mistress Mountain Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-55 Drakchak KhongkhaBrag chag khong kha TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-56 KharngönMkhar sngon Blue Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-57 Naktsuk KharNag gtsug mkhar Black Acme Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-58 Hala KharHa la mkhar (West) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-59 Hala KharHa la mkhar (East) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-60 Gyülgül KharRgyul ’gul mkhar Quivering Intestines Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-61 Kaling KharKa gling mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-62 TsarangRtsa rang TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-63 Zhayé KharZha ye mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-64 Chumurti KhargokChu mur ti mkhar gog Water Springs Ruined Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-65 PemochéSpe mo che GarSgar
I.1x A-66 Kharlung KhargokMkhar lung mkhar gog Castle Valley Ruined Castle GarSgar
I.1c A-67 Lungpa Rakpa KharLung pa rag pa mkhar Tawny Valley Castle GarSgar
I.1b A-68 Gyammuk KharGyam smug mkhar Purplish Brown Cliff Shelter Castle GarSgar
I.1b A-69 Purok KharSpu rog mkhar Crow Castle GarSgar
I.1x A-70 Dungkar KhargokDung dkar mkhar gog White Conch Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-71 Saten KharSra brtan mkhar Hard and Steady Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-72 Kyungmo DrakkharSkyung mo brag mkhar Female Chough Rock Formation Castle RutokRu thog
I.1c A-73 Lhünburtsé DzongLhun ’bur rtse rdzong Hill Summit Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-74 DomraSdom ra Spider Enclosure Fortress (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-75 Jiu KyéByi’u kye (?) Little Bird Tea Urn (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.1c A-76 Nakra Drakseng DzongNag ra brag seng rdzong Black Expanse Lion Rock Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1b A-77 Bera PukSbe ra phug (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-78 Drakla DzongBrag la rdzong Rock Hill Fortress NgamringNgam ring
I.1a A-79 Tochu KharMtho chu mkhar Lofty River Castle Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1b A-80 Nakra DzongNag ra rdzong Black Expanse Fortress PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-81 Takla KharStag la mkhar Tiger Hill Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-82 Jiu KharByi’u mkhar Little Bird Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-83 Wangdrak PukDbang brag phug Power Rock Formation Cave TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-84 Posa KhargokSpo sa mkhar gog (?) RutokRu thog
I.1b A-85 Kharru KhargokMkhar ru mkhar gog Castle Division Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-86 KharpochéMkhar po che Great Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-87 Sherang KharlungShe rang mkhar lung RutokRu thog
I.1c A-88 YilungDbyi lung Lynx Valley RutokRu thog
I.1a A-89 GekhöGe khod259 mkhar lung Demon Conqueror Castle Valley RutokRu thog
I.1b A-90 Chulung Okma KharChu lung ’og ma mkhar Lower Water Valley Castle RutokRu thog
I.1c A-91 MarlungMar lung (?) RutokRu thog
I.1a A-92 Luring NakhaLu ring sna kha Long Springs Prow RutokRu thog
I.1x A-93 Khaser Ramo Gyamo KharKha ser ra mo rgya mo mkhar Yellow Mouth Black Markings Female Goat Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-94 Deu Nakgu KharRde’u nag gu mkhar Black Hill Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-95 Tönkha LungkharMthon kha lung mkhar (?) RutokRu thog
I.1x A-96 GülringMgul ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1c A-97 Drakgu SeldrönBrag gu gsal sgron Bright Lamp Rock Formation PelgönDpal mgon
I.1b A-98 Gartsang KharMgar gtsang mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-99 Tang KhartséStang mkhar rtse TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-100 Zarang KhartséZa rang mkhar rtse TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-101 Pia KharPhi’a mkhar (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-102 Balu KharBa lu mkhar (PulingSpu gling) Dwarf’s Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-103 Kardung KharDkar dung mkhar Conch White Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-104 Bargyi KharBar gyi mkhar RutokRu thog
I.1x A-105 Ribong KharruRi bong mkhar ru Rabbit Castle Division RutokRu thog
I.1x A-106 Belpa KharSbal pa mkhar Frog Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-107 KyidzongSkyid rdzong Happiness Fortress RutokRu thog
I.1a A-108 DongmarGdong dmar Red Face RutokRu thog
I.1x A-109 KharkarMkhar dkar White Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-110 Dosham Möngyi KharRdo gsham mon gyi mkhar/ Dosham MöngyikharGdo gsham mon gyi mkhar Lower Rock Castle of the MönMon/ Lower Rock Castle of the MönMon TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-111 Dosham Möngyi YülRdo gsham mon gyi yul/ Dosham MöngyiyülGdo gsham mon gyi yul Rocks Below Village of the MönMon TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-112 Lung PukLung phug Spiritual Transmission Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-113 Cholo PukCho lo phug (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-114 KhartakMkhar ltag Upper Aspect Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-115 Rakhashak Möngyi KharRa kha shag mon gyi mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-116 Jangtang KharByang stang mkhar/KharpochéMkhar po che Great Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-117 Khar MarpoMkhar dmar po Red Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-118 Sharlang KharShar lang mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-119 Markar Juru KharMar dkar byu ru mkhar/Samdrup Khyung DzongBsam grub khyung rdzong White Butter Coral Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-120 Tsenlhé KharBtsan lha’i mkhar/Drakkar KharBrag dkar mkhar Castle of the Lhalha and Tsenbtsan / White Rock Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-121 Mani Tang KharMa ṇi thang mkhar Manima ṇi Plain Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-122 KölkharKol mkhar (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1c A-123 Kamsang MönkharSkam srang mon mkhar Dry Plain MönMon Castle GertséSger rtse
I.1x A-124 Khargok Dorjé YudrönmaMkhar gog rdo rje g.yu sgron ma Dorjé YudrönmaRdo rje g.yu sgron ma260 Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-125 Kolok KhargokKo logs mkhar gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-126 Serzhung KhargokGser gzhung mkhar gog Golden Pasture Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-127 KharnakMkhar nag Black Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-128 Jekar KhargokBye dkar mkhar gog White Sands Ruined Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-129 Wutsé KharDbu rtse mkhar Acme Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-130 Chuti KharChu sti mkhar261 Water Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-131 Riwa MönkharRi ba mon mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-132 Rinti GangkharRi lti sgang mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-133 PukkharPhug mkhar Cave Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-134 Balu KharBa lu mkhar (TsarangRtsa rang) Dwarf’s Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-135 Ronglha Gyeltsen MönkhangRong lha rgyal mtshan mon khang Valley God Victory Banner MönMon House SagaSa dga’
I.1b A-136 KharchungMkhar chung Little Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1c A-137 Dziden ChungwaBrdzi gdan chung ba Lesser Scent Block GarSgar
I.1c A-138 Arong MönkharA rong mon mkhar GarSgar
I.1b A-139 Shangtsé BönkharShang rtse bon mkhar ShangtséShang rtse BönBon castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-140 Shiri MönkharShi ri mon mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-141 Rula KharRu la mkhar Horde Hill Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1 A-142 KharlungMkhar lung Castle Valley GegyéDge rgyas

I.2 Residential Structures in All Other Locations

  1. I.2a: All-stone corbelled structures
  2. I.2b: Other freestanding building types
  3. I.2c: Buildings integrating caves and escarpments in their construction
  4. I.2x: Indeterminate subtype262
Type Site number Site name English Equivalent County
I.2a B-1 Bam GöntakBa’am dgon ltag Bamba’am Upper Aspect monastery NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-2 Gönpo NamsumMgon po rnam gsum263 Group of Three Protectors NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-3 Göntak TakgoDgon ltag ltag mgo Upper Aspect monastery High Above NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-4 Yungdrung DraktséG.yung drung brag rtse/Lhalung GönpaLha lung dgon pa Swastika Rock Formation Peak / Divine Valley monastery NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-5 Lhalung Drak KarLha lung brag dkar Divine Valley White Rock NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-6 Chuktso Drokpo GönpoPhyug tsho grog po dgon pa Wealthy District Ravine monastery NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-7 Rakye DrakRwa skye brag264 [Goat] Horn Growth Rock Formation NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-8 Mönlam DzongSmon lam rdzong Prayer Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-9 Gyang DrakGyang grags Famous Walls PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-10 SerlungSer lung Yellow Valley PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-11 Podo GongmaSpos do gong ma Upper Incense Headland TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a B-12 Podo SharmaSpos do shar ma Incense Headland East TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a B-13 DodrilbuDo dril bu/Namtso KharelGnam mtsho kha ral/ Bell Headland / Celestial Lake Mouth Cleft TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a B-14 Domar KhangroRdo dmar khang ro Red Rock House Ruins TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a B-15 ZhapjéZhabs rjes (?)265 Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-16 Lemar JangSle dmar byang (big peninsula) Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-17 Setrap TsamkhangBse khrab mtshams khang266 bse Armor Meditation House Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-18 Tamchok Khabap Bön GönpaRta mchog kha ’bab bon dgon pa Excellent Horse Fountain BönBon monastery Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-19 Takrong TsamkhangStag rong mtshams khang Tiger Gorge Meditation Houses Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-20 Zhapkar DruppukZhabs dkar sgrub phug Religious Attainment Cave of ZhapkarZhabs dkar267 PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-21 Menla PodrangSman bla pho brang (South) Medicine Buddha Palace PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-22 Nyenpori DzongGnyan po ri rdzong/Nyangpo Ri DzongMyang po ri rdzong Mighty Mountain Castle PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-23 Jomo RirangJo mo ri rang Mistress Mountain TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2a B-24 Chilbu GönpaSpyil bu dgon pa Cottage monastery TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2a B-25 Riu GönpaRi’u dgon pa Little Mountain monastery RutokRu thog
I.2a B-26 Dzuntrül PukRdzu ’phrul phug Cave of Miracles NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-27 PukchenPhug chen Great Cave NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-28 KyarangKya rang (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-29 TakchenStag chen Great Tiger NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-30 Chukgu ChusumPhug dgu bcu gsum Nine Retreat Houses Thirteen Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-31 ZimpukGzims phug Abode Cave Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-32 Yachü DrakpukG.ya’ bcud brag phug (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-33 Lungtsen PukLung bstan phug Prophecy Cave PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-34 Dechö GönpaSde chos dgon pa Buddhist Division Monastery RutokRu thog
I.2a B-35 LhalungLha lung Divine Valley RutokRu thog
I.2a B-36 Gekhö KharlungGe khod mkhar lung Demon Conqueror Castle Valley RutokRu thog
I.2a B-37 Gönpé DoDgon pa’i do Island of the Monastery RutokRu thog
I.2a B-38 Taser GokMtha’ ser gog Yellow Margin Ruins RutokRu thog
I.2a, I.2b B-39 Khangpa MargokKhang pa dmar gog Ruined Red Houses TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a, I.2b B-40 Drakgam DzongBrag sgam rdzong Rock Formation Chest Fortress ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2a B-41 Menla PodrangSman bla pho brang (North) Medicine Buddha Palace PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-42 AwangA dbang PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-43 Sinpo DzongSrin po’i rdzong Fortress of the sinposrin po268 RutokRu thog
I.2a B-44 TrandraKhra ’dra RutokRu thog
I.2a B-45 Dongmar DokhangGdong dmar rdo khang Red Face Stone Houses RutokRu thog
I.2a B-46 Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo RutokRu thog
I.2a B-47 Purbu GyangmarPhur bu gyang dmar Ritual Dagger Red Walls PelgönDpal mgon
I.2a? B-48 Khangpé KyéKhang pa’i skyed PelgönDpal mgon
I.2a B-49 Zicha MönkhangZi cha mon khang (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I.2a B-50 SaraSa rā (?) RutokRu thog
I.2x B-51 DoringRdo ring269 Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-52 Gondö DrakkhungDgos ’dod brag khung Fulfillment Cave NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-53 DokhargoDo mkhar sgo Castle Portal Headland ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2x B-54 BongchenBong chen270 Great Boulder NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-55 Bam Khang TrokBa’am khang khrog Bam Ruined Houses NyimaNyi ma
I.2a B-56 Ombu Ogkhang’Om bu ’og khang Ombu’om bu Subterranean Houses NyimaNyi ma
I.2b B-57 Darchen Khang TrokDar chen khang khrog Great Flag Ruined Houses (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-58 MargyamDmar gyam (Gönpa NakrokDgon pa nag rog) Red Escarpment NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-59 Ommo’Om mo NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-60 SokpoSog po Sogdians / mongolians NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-61 Dzara Kargyam MöndoRdza ra dkar gyam mon rdo Clay Pot White Cliff Shelter MönMon Stones GegyéDge rgyas
I.2x B-62 Dopo RakDo po rag Tawny Hill (?) RutokRu thog
I.2x B-63 ZazaZa za (?) RutokRu thog
I.2x B-64 Burkar’Bur dkar White Hill TsochenMtsho chen
I.2a? B-65 Sha DoSha do Deer Headland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2x B-66 DoringDo ring Long Headland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2x B-67 NyingdoSnying do Heart Headland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2x B-68 Ganglung LhatséGangs lung lha rtse Mountain Country Divine Peak NyimaNyi ma
I.2x B-69 Lemar JangSle dmar byang (small peninsula) Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2x B-70 Samdo MarriBsam do dmar ri Meditation Headland Red Mountain Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2x B-71 KhokraKhog ra Ruins Zone RutokRu thog
I.2x B-72 Zhing KhagongZhing ka gong Upper Fields GarSgar
I.2x B-73 Chöten Khongseng ChenMchod rten khong seng can271 PurangSpu rang
I.2x B-74 TrizhungKhri gzhung Seat of the Pasture (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.2b B-75 Goktsé KhangmarGog rtse khang dmar (?) RutokRu thog
I.2x B-76 Sinmo DzongSrin mo rdzong/ Sokcham KhangSog lcam khang SinmoSrin mo Fortress / House of the SokSog Lady Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2b B-77 Manam KharMa nam mkhar (West) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2x B-78 Jiu Singpé KharByi’u sing pa’i mkhar Little Bird Fortress of the Singpasing pa272 PurangSpu rang
I.2b B-79 YüllungYul lung Valley Habitation RutokRu thog
I.2b B-80 Lung NgakLung ngag (?) RutokRu thog
I.2b B-81 Dechö Kelmön YülSde chos skal mon yul Buddhist Division Kel MönSkal mon273 Country RutokRu thog
I.2x B-82 Doring KhangroRdo ring khang ro Long-stones Ruined Habitations Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2b B-83 Puling YültongSpu gling yul stong Abandoned Village of PulingSpu gling TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2x B-84 Tokmé DeuburThogs med rde’u ’bur Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2x B-85 Jangru DingByang ru sdings Northern Division Tableland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2x B-86 KyangtangRkyang thang Onager Plain Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.2b B-87 Bumo LhakhangBu mo lha khang/ Pönmo LhakhangDpon mo lha khang/Namré Pön LhakhangGnam ra’i dpon lha khang Woman’s Temple / Female Leader’s Temple / Leader’s Temple of the Firmament GegyéDge rgyas
I.2x B-88 Bar MönkharBar mon mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2c B-89 Gyerru TsodoGyer ru mtsho do BönBon Community Lake Headland PelgönDpal mgon
I.2c B-90 Drak TuwochéBrag mthu bo che Great Powerful Rock Formation NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-91 Nékün ZangGnas kun bzang All Good Holy Place NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-92 AmnakAm nag Black Rock Formation NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-93 GodakSgo bdag Portal Master NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-94 Lhalung DruppukLha lung sgrub phug274 Divine Valley Religious Attainment Cave NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-95 Dzong KarpoRdzong dkar po (DangraDang ra) White Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-96 Mamik Drak KarMa mig brag dkar (South) GertséSger rtse
I.2c B-97 ChupukChu phug Water Cave PurangSpu rang
I.2c B-98 TakrongStag rong Tiger Gorge Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2c B-99 JadoBya do Bird Headland PelgönDpal mgon
I.2c B-100 Tongdröl DrakṂthong grol brag Liberation by Sight Rock Formation TsochenMtsho chen
I.2c B-101 Lhakhang MarchakLha khang dmar chag275 Red-Colored Temple Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2c B-102 Pranglam’Phrang lam Narrow Passageway Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2c B-103 Shawa Dong LhakhangSha ba gdong lha khang Deer Face Temple Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2c B-104 Kyi Puk Samten LingSkyid phug bsam gtan gling Happiness Cave Meditation monastery NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-105 Takdrak KhungStag brag khung Tiger Grotto NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-106 Lhalung Drakkar Sangwé NéLha lung brag dkar gsang ba’i gnas Divine Valley White Rock Secret Holy Place NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-107 Dzong KarpoRdzong dkar po (GertséSger rtse) White Fortress GertséSger rtse
I.2c B-108 Drak KhorgangBrag ’khor sgang Circle Rock Hill Spur GertséSger rtse
I.2c B-109 Mamik Drak KarMa mig brag dkar (North) Mamikma mig White Rock Formation GertséSger rtse
I.2c B-110 TsaktikBtsag tig (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I.2c B-111 Chukhargyam DruppukChu mkhar gyam sgrub phug Water Castle Religious Attainment Cave RutokRu thog
I.2c B-112 Gurgyam GönpaGur gyam dgon pa Divine Tent Cliff Shelter Monastery GarSgar
I.2c B-113 ShendraShel ’dra Crystal Likeness PurangSpu rang
I.2c B-114 Bönpo PukBon po phug Bönpobon po Cave PurangSpu rang
I.2c B-115 ApukA phug [Holy Letter] A Cave PurangSpu rang
I.2c B-116 Shötram PukShod tram phug ShötramShod tram’s Cave276 NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-117 Khyunglung YülméKhyung lung yul smad Horned Eagle Valley Lower Village TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2c B-118 Kyidrom GönpaSkyid sgrom dgon pa Frame of Happiness Monastery (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2c B-119 Garsöl DrakpukSgar gsol brag phug ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2c B-120 Gönro MardingDgon ro dmar lding/ Chakgo DrakLcags sgo brag Soaring Red Derelict Monastery / Iron Portal Formation ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2c B-121 Pangtra Dzong KarSpang bkra rdzong dkar Glistening Meadow White Fortress TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2c B-122 Gyamchung PukpaGyam chung phug pa Small Rock Shelter Cave GarSgar
I.2x B-123 Ombu Zhang Zhung Gönpa’Om bu zhang zhung dgon pa Ombu Zhang Zhung’Om bu zhang zhung monastery NyimaNyi ma
I.2c B-124 Tara MardingRta ra dmar lding Soaring Red Horse Corral ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2a B-125 MönbuMon bu Son of the MönMon (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.2c B-126 SemodoSe mo do South / SinmodoSrin mo do South / NangdoNang do South Island of the sinmosrin mo / Inner Island PelgönDpal mgon
I.2c B-127 SemodoSe mo do West /SinmodoSrin mo do West /NangdoNang do West Island of the sinmosrin mo / Inner Island PelgönDpal mgon
I.2a B-128 DotagaDo rta sga East /Tsolinggi DoMtsho gling gi doEast Horse Saddle Island / Island of the Lake Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-129 DotagaDo rta sga South /Tsolinggi DoMtsho gling gi do South Horse Saddle Island / Island of the Lake Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-130 DodrilbuDo dril bu Bell Island Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-131 TsodoMtsho do Island Lake Drongpa’Brong pa
I.2a B-132 DoserDo ser Yellow Island PurangSpu rang
I.2a B-133 Domuk TsamkhangDo smug mtshams khang Purplish Island Meditation House PurangSpu rang
I.2x B-134 Draklung LhomaBrag lung lho ma Rock Formation Valley South ShentsaShan rtsa
I.2c B-135 DopukRdo phug Stone Cave GarSgar
1.2a B-136 Pukpa GönPhug pa dgon Cave monastery NyimaNyi ma

II.1 Stelae and Accompanying Structures

II.1a: Isolated Pillars

Site number site name English Equivalent County
C-1 Sertsok DoringSer tshogs rdo ring Yellow Assembly Long-stones RutokRu thog
C-2 Lonpo DoringBlon po rdo ring Minister Long-stone NyimaNyi ma
C-3 Lekhampa DoringBsle kham pa rdo ring NyimaNyi ma
C-4 Sharsha DoringShar sha rdo ring GertséSger rtse
C-5 Senkhor Jangma DoringBse ’khor byang ma rdo ring/Senkhor Jangma DoringSeng ’khor byang ma rdo ring bse Circle North Long-stones / Lion Circle North Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-6 Luktuk PrangLug thug ’phrang Sheep Brush Against Narrow Passage NyimaNyi ma
C-7 Doring PünsumRdo ring spun gsum Three Brothers Long-stones PelgönDpal mgon
C-8 DopurRdo phur Stone Ritual Dagger GegyéDge rgyas
C-9 Naktsok DoringNag tshogs rdo ring Black Assembly Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-10 Sipra DoringSrib ra rdo ring Shady Zone Long-stone GegyéDge rgyas
C-11 Sana Marri DoringSa sna dmar ri rdo ring Variegated Earth Red Mountain Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-12 Doring TsotraRdo ring mtsho bkra Bright Lake Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-13 Gyaplung DoringRgyab lung rdo ring Back Valley Long-stones PurangSpu rang
C-14 Marchö DoringMar mchod rdo ring Butter Offering Long-stone TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-15 Sakti DoringSag thi rdo ring TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-16 Luma Archung DoringLu ma ar chung rdo ring (?) GarSgar
C-17 Droklhé DoringGrog lhas rdo ring Drongpa’Brong pa
C-18 TekyerThes skyer (?) GegyéDge rgyas
C-19 Garshok DoringSgar gshog rdo ring Strong Wings Long-stones (?) SagaSa dga’
C-20 Laktsang DoringLag tshang rdo ring Cupped Hands Long-stone (?) SagaSa dga’
C-21 Drangchungwa Bam DoringGrang chung ba bam rdo ring (?) SagaSa dga’
C-22 Nakhama DoringNa mkha’ ma rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-23 Doring GyaplungRdo ring rgyab lung Rear Valley Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-24 Kyao DoringSkya’o rdo ring (?) PurangSpu rang
C-25 Chönkhor DoringChos ’khor rdo ring Dharma Wheel Long-stone PurangSpu rang
C-26 Langchen ChewaGlang chen mche ba Elephant Tusk PurangSpu rang
C-27 Doring Lung DoringRdo ring lung rdo ring Long-stones Valley Long-stones PurangSpu rang
C-28 Dzatsok DoringRdza tshogs rdo ring (?) RutokRu thog
C-29 A Ongtso DoringA ’ong mtsho rdo ring GegyéDge rgyas
C-30 Drakgo DoringBrag sgo rdo ring Rock Portal Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-31 Khorbuk Doring’Khor sbug rdo ring Innermost Circle Long-stone Drongpa’Brong pa
C-32 Horduk DoringHor dug rdo ring Mongolian Poison Long-stone (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-33 Lhalung DoringLha lung rdo ring Divine Valley Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-34 Gokdeu DoringSgog rde’u rdo ring Garlic Hill Long-stone (?) TsochenMtsho chen
C-35 Langchen DopurGlang chen rdo phur Elephant Stone Ritual Dagger PurangSpu rang
C-36 DomilangRdo mi lang Standing Man Stone PelgönDpal mgon
C-37 NgoringSngo ring Long Verdure (?) PelgönDpal mgon
C-38 DoringRdo ring277 Long-stones ShentsaShan rtsa
C-39 Dralung DoringGra lung rdo ring Dra Valley Long-stone TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-40 Dowa SumpaRdo ba gsum pa The Three Stones PurangSpu rang
C-41 Donak DoringRdo nag rdo ring Black Rock Long-stones TsochenMtsho chen
C-42 Trachap DoringKhra chab rdo ring GertséSger rtse
C-43 Drankhor DoSbra ’khor rdo Tent Camp Rock GegyéDge rgyas
C-44 Gyungnak Tsuk DoringGyung nag gtsug rdo ring GegyéDge rgyas
C-166 DoringRdo ring Long-stone TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-169 Mönbu DoringMon bu rdo ring Son of the MönMon Long-stone (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-170 Zangdong MöndoZangs gdong mon rdo Copper Face MönMon Stones Drongpa’Brong pa

II.1b: Pillars Erected Within a Quadrate Enclosure

Site number Site name Translation of Site name County
C-45 Kyadzong DoringKya rdzong rdo ring (?) NyimaNyi ma
C-46 DoringRdo ring Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-47 Pelung DoringPhe lung rdo ring (?) TsochenMtsho chen
C-48 Mönra YarkéMon ra yar rked278 Above the Foot of the Mountain MönMonEnclosures NyimaNyi ma
C-49 Mönré DoringMon ra’i rdo ring Long-stones of MönMonEnclosure NyimaNyi ma
C-50 Lamlung DoringLam lung rdo ring Road Valley Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-51 Denchu DoringLdan chu mon rdo GertséSger rtse
C-52 Manjang DoringMa ’byang rdo ring (?)279 GertséSger rtse
C-53 Zhingchen MöndoZhing chen mon rdo Great Farm MönMon Stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-54 Shang DoringShang rdo ring GegyéDge rgyas
C-55 Khangmar DoringKhang dmar rdo ring Red Houses Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-56 Ango Doring’A ’go rdo ring GegyéDge rgyas
C-57 Yitsé Khar DoringYid rtse mkhar rdo ring Beautiful Peak Castle Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-58 Chokpo DoringSpyog po rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-59 Shakgang Topo DoringShag gang mtho po rdo ring Gravel-Covered Prominence Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-60 Pegya DoringPe gya rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-61 Senggé DoringSeng ge rdo ring Lion Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-62 Chupuk DoringChu phug rdo ring Water Cave Long-stones PurangSpu rang
C-63 Loro DoringLo ro rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-64 Mertum Pima DoringMer btum pis ma rdo ring TsochenMtsho chen
C-65 Mertum Chukmo DoringMer btum phyug mo rdo ring TsochenMtsho chen
C-66 Mayo DoringMa g.yo rdo ring ShentsaShan rtsa
C-67 Pelmo DopurDpal mo rdo phur/ Pelmo TakpurDpal mo ’thag phur Stone Daggers of [A TakA stag] PelmoDpal mo280 / Weaving Stakes of [A TakA stag] PelmoDpal mo NyimaNyi ma
C-68 Tsarkam Jangma DoringTshar skam byang ma rdo ring (?) NyimaNyi ma
C-69 Dungtsé DoringDung rtse rdo ring Conch Peak Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-70 A Chen DoringA chen rdo ring NyimaNyi ma
C-71 Nyashing DoringRnya shing rdo ring (?) NyimaNyi ma
C-72 Ra Serkhok DoringRa ser khog rdo ring Yellow Goat Carcass Long-stone NyimaNyi ma
C-73 Doring MarmoRdo ring dmar mo Red Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-74 Doring ChakraRdo ring lcags ra Fenced Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-75 Sakte DoringSag the rdo ring GertséSger rtse
C-76 Namalung DoringNa ma lung rdo ring Grasslands Valley Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-77 Doring KarmoRdo ring dkar mo White Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-78 Membar DoringMe ’bar rdo ring Flaming Long-stone GegyéDge rgyas
C-79 Mönlam DoringSmon lam rdo ring Prayer Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-80 Zhinglung DoringZhing lung rdo ring Farm Valley Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-81 Khamchen DoringKhams chen rdo ring Great Realm Long-stone (?) GegyéDge rgyas
C-82 Beltsa Gyangtrok DoringBal tshwa gyang khrog rdo ring Wool Salt Ruins Long-stone SagaSa dga’
C-83 Gurchen DoringGur chen rdo ring Great Tent Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-84 Khusé DoringKhu se rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-85 Jangdé DoringByang sde rdo ring Northern Division Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-86 Tara DoringRta ra rdo ring (BaryangBar yangs) Horse Corral Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-87 A Serchung DoringA ser chung rdo ring Drongpa’Brong pa
C-88 Drama Nakgu DoringGra ma nag gu rdo ring Black Drama Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-89 Ukpa Lung Doring’Ug pa lung rdo ring Owl Valley Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-90 Nangchu DoringNang chu rdo ring Inner River Long-stones (?) GegyéDge rgyas
C-91 Naklhé DoringNag lhas rdo ring Black Corral Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-92 Lumö Tanak DoringKlu mo’i rta nag rdo ring Black Horse of the Female Water Spirits Long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-93 Shapak DoringSha phag rdo ring (?) GegyéDge rgyas
C-94 Tangra DoringThang ra rdo ring Plains Long-stones (?) RutokRu thog
C-95 Nakkhung DoringNag khung rdo ring Black Fissure Long-stones RutokRu thog
C-96 Doring KarnakRdo ring dkar nag Black and White long-stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-97 Mokyok DoringMo kyog rdo ring (?) GertséSger rtse
C-98 Bültang DoringBul thang rdo ring Soda Plain Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-99 Nakpo DoringNag po rdo ring Black Long-stone NyimaNyi ma
C-100 Ngönmo DoringSngon mo rdo ring Blue Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-101 Zhalung DoringZha lung rdo ring (?) NyimaNyi ma
C-102 Sanyel DoringSa nyal rdo ring Sleeping Earth Long-stone NyimaNyi ma
C-103 Yanglung DoringG.yang lung rdo ring Good Fortune Valley Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-104 Nyönpa Lhé DoringSmyon pa lhas rdo ring Crazy Corral Long-stones TsamdaRtsa mda’
C-105 Drukmö Doring’Brug mo’i rdo ring Long-stones of Drukmo’Brug mo281 Drongpa’Brong pa
C-106 Shamzha DoringGsham zha rdo ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
C-107 Doring RaktsukRdo ring rag gtsug Tawny Top Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-108 Marbuk DoringDmar sbug rdo ring Red Nook Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-109 Takpur Doring’Thag phur rdo ring Weaving Stakes Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-110 Yachü DoringG.ya’ bcud rdo ring Chrysoplenium carnosum Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-111 Gyatengbur DoringRgya steng ’bur rdo ring (West) Wide High Hill Long-stones PurangSpu rang
C-112 Khyiu DurtröKhyi’u dur khrod Little Dog Cemetery GarSgar
C-113 Doring NakkhaRdo ring nag kha Black Plain Long-stones RutokRu thog
C-114 Zhingsa DoringZhing sa rdo ring Farm Fields Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-115 Jamri DoringByams ri rdo ring Future Buddha (JampaByams pa) Mountain Long-stone TsochenMtsho chen
C-116 Tratsang DoringKhra tshang rdo ring Hawk Nest Long-stones TsochenMtsho chen
C-117 Omatsé Doring’O ma tshe rdo ring Milk Long-life Long-stones TsochenMtsho chen
C-118 Tsengo DoringBtsan sgo rdo ring tsenbtsan282 Door Long-stones TsochenMtsho chen
C-119 Nyungkar DoringNyung dkar rdo ring Mustard Seed Long-stone ShentsaShan rtsa
C-120 Nyenta DoringGnyan rta rdo ring Horse of the nyengnyan283 Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-121 Chunak DoringChu nag rdo ring Black Water Long-stones GarSgar
C-122 Rinchen Chundé DoringRin chen chu ’ded rdo ring Jewel Water Runoff Long-stones (?) PurangSpu rang
C-123 Tara DoringRta ra rdo ring (PurangSpu rang) Horse Corral Long-stone PurangSpu rang
C-124 Sharma DoringShar ma rdo ring Long-stones East PurangSpu rang
C-125 Pelmo TakpurDpal mo ’thag phur Weaving Stakes of [A TakA stag] PelmoDpal mo TsonyiMtsho gnyis
C-126 Chepuchung MöndoraChad phu chung mon rdo ra (?) PelgönDpal mgon
C-127 Gyachen MöndoraRgya chen mon rdo ra PelgönDpal mgon
C-128 DoringRdo ring (North) Long-stones PelgönDpal mgon
C-129 GyamngönGyam sngon Blue Escarpment TsonyiMtsho gnyis
C-130 SokpoSog po Sogdian / Mongolian TsonyiMtsho gnyis
C-131 Dröwo DoringGros bo rdo ring (?) TsochenMtsho chen
C-132 DolhéRdo lhas Stone Corral TsochenMtsho chen
C-133 DomilangRdo mi lang Standing Man Stone TsochenMtsho chen
C-134 Drakbuk DoringBrag sbug rdo ring Rock Nook Long-stones GertséSger rtse
C-135 Kanyin DoringKa nyin rdo ring (?) GegyéDge rgyas
C-136 Nyerma Gyam DoringGnyer ma gyam rdo ring Furrowed Cliff Shelter Long-stone GegyéDge rgyas
C-165 Tsoksum DoringTshogs gsum rdo ring Three Assemblies Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa
C-167 RokhungRo khung Graves GertséSger rtse
C-171 Dolang NyidrikRdo lang gnyis sgrig Two Standing Stones in a Row NyimaNyi ma
C-172 Lukdo Möndur KhungLug rdo mon dur khung Sheep Rock Tombs of the Mön NyimaNyi ma
C-173 Jori DoringJo ri rdo ring Master Mountain Long-stones Drongpa’Brong pa

II.1c: Quadrangular arrays of pillars appended to edifices

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
C-137 Tago DoksaRta rgo ’dogs sa TagoRta rgo’s Hitching Place NyimaNyi ma
C-138 Serlep MöndoSer leb mon rdo Yellow Flat MönMon Stones GertséSger rtse
C-139 Ludü MöndoKlu bdud mon rdo ludüklu bdud284 MönMon Stones GegyéDge rgyas
C-140 Drongpa Pöngyang Shik’Brong pa dpon gyang shig Drongpa’Brong pa Ward Broken Walls GegyéDge rgyas
C-141 Pamo DrekyerDpa’ mo ’dre ’khyer285 Bride Carried Away by Demons RutokRu thog
C-142 Jangdong GongkhaByang sdong gong kha GarSgar
C-143 Yül KhambuYul kham bu286 Drongpa’Brong pa
C-144 Khangmar MöndurKhang dmar mon dur Red House MönMon Tombs Drongpa’Brong pa
C-145 Shasha PelkhangSha sha dpal khang Deer Meat House of [A TakĀ stag] PelDpal [MoMo] GegyéDge rgyas
C-146 Towo MarhrangTho bo dmar hrang287 Red Bare Stone Registers GarSgar
C-147 Sumbuk DoringSum sbug rdo ring Innermost Juncture Long-stones NyimaNyi ma
C-148 Kyang Tsedo GyangroRkyang rtswa mdo gyang ro Onager Grass Confluence Ruins ShentsaShan rtsa
C-149 Chupur DopurChu phur rdo phur Water Daggers Stone Daggers GertséSger rtse
C-150 Möndur LhéMon dur lhas MönMon Tomb Enclosures GertséSger rtse
C-151 Samik MöndurSa mig mon dur Earth Eye MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
C-152 Namgyi KawaGnam gyi ka ba Pillars of the Sky GegyéDge rgyas
C-153 Tsari Lung MöndurTshwa ri lung mon dur Salt Mountain Valley MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
C-154 Kekar MöndurRked dkar mon dur GegyéDge rgyas
C-155 Kyungmö MönraSkyung mo’i mon ra Female Chough MönMon Enclosures NyimaNyi ma
C-156 Ngönmo MöndurSngon mo mon dur Blue MönMon Tombs NyimaNyi ma
C-157 Gangchen DoringGangs chen rdo ring Big Mountain Long-stones SagaSa dga’
C-158 PaktukPags mthug Thick Hide GertséSger rtse
C-159 Na NakpoSna nag po (?) GertséSger rtse
C-160 Khangmar DzashakKhang dmar rdza shag Red House Talus-Blanketed GertséSger rtse
C-161 KyiserSkyid gser Golden Happiness GertséSger rtse
C-162 DoringRdo ring (south) Long-stones PelgönDpal mgon
C-163 TsendoBtsan rdo tsenbtsan Stones GertséSger rtse
C-164 Jiri BukByi ri sbug (?) SagaSa dga’
C-168 Drarong MöndurGra rong mon ’dur Dragra Gorge MönMon Tombs Drongpa’Brong pa

II.2 Superficial Structures (Primarily Funerary Superstructures)

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
D-1 SipraSrib ra288 Shady Zone Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-2 SernyaGser nya289 Golden Fish Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-3 AmchokA chog290 Ear Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-4 KyelungSkye lung and LungsumLung gsum291 Growth Valley and Three Valleys Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-5 TaklungStag lung292 Tiger Valley ShentsaShan rtsa
D-6 Chöten GyawaMchod rten brgya ba293 One Hundred Stupas ShentsaShan rtsa
D-7 LukdoLug do294 Sheep Headland PelgönDpal mgon
D-8 MönraMon ra (NyilungNyi lung)295 MönMon Enclosures (Sun Valley) TsochenMtsho chen
D-9 Langri DrokmarGlang ri ’brog dmar Elephant Mountain Red Pasture TsochenMtsho chen
D-10 MönraMon ra (Taktong LhomaStag stong lho ma) MönMon Enclosures TsochenMtsho chen
D-11 Mönpé DurkhungMon pa’i dur khung Tombs of the MönpaMon pa NyimaNyi ma
D-12 KhokroKhog ro Ruins NyimaNyi ma
D-13 Tsira MöndurRtsid ra mon dur (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-14 Drak Karnak DingBrag dkar nag sdings White Rock Formation Black Eminence NyimaNyi ma
D-15 DarchungDar chung Small Flag (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-16 Tsakha MönkhangTshwa kha mon khang Salt Plain MönMon Houses GegyéDge rgyas
D-17 Randrok PranggoRwa ’brog ’phrang sgo Horn Pasture Narrow Passage Portal RutokRu thog
D-18 Domri NakhaDom ri gna’ kha (?)296 Bear Mountain Blue Sheep Plain (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-19 Milhé KhordoMi lhas ’khor mdo297 Human Habitation Juncture (?) RutokRu thog
D-20 Lukdo PungléLug rdo spungs lhas Sheep Rock Meadow Corral ShentsaShan rtsa
D-21 Nyala NgorilRnya la sngo ril (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-22 ChaptokChabs thog (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-23 DramchakGram phyag (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-24 Mönra YarkéMon ra yar rked Above the Foot of the Mountain MönMon Enclosures NyimaNyi ma
D 25 GötsangRgod tshang Vulture’s Nest NyimaNyi ma
D-26 Luma KarmoLu ma dkar mo White Springs NyimaNyi ma
D-27 Khargong’Khar sgong Bell Metal Egg (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-28 TroklamKhrog lam Delapidated Way GertséSger rtse
D-29 Guru Rinpoché Druppuk MönroGu ru rin po che sgrub phug mon ro MönMon Graves of Guru RinpochéGu ru rin po che’s Religious Attainment Cave GertséSger rtse
D-30 SaktéSag the GertséSger rtse
D-31 Dora KyakyokRdo ra skya skyog (?) GertséSger rtse
D-32 Dzokdong’Dzog gdong (?) GertséSger rtse
D-33 RigyelRi rgyal Monarch Mountain GertséSger rtse
D-34 DrabukGra sbug dramagra ma Nook GertséSger rtse
D-35 Mencham KarmoSman lcam dkar mo White Lady GegyéDge rgyas
D-36 GokraSgog ra ? RutokRu thog
D-37 Draklung NubmaBrag lung nub ma Rock Valley West RutokRu thog
D-38 Chukhargyam MöndurChu mkhar gyam mon dur Water Castle Rock Shelter MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-39 TajangMtha’ byang298 Northern Edge GarSgar
D-40 Ormo Gang’Or mo sgang GegyéDge rgyas
D-41 Drak TsangpoBrag gtsang po Rock Formation River PurangSpu rang
D-42 Purang KhyölSpu rang ’khyol PurangSpu rang
D-43 Driten MöndurDri brtan mon dur (?) GarSgar
D-44 Burkar Zhung’Bur dkar gzhung White Hill Pasture GegyéDge rgyas
D-45 Nakra MöndurNag ra mon dur Black Expanse MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
D-46 Tsapo DeumburTshwa po rde’u ’bur Salt Hill GegyéDge rgyas
D-47 Drakratar MöndurBrag ra thar mon dur Freed Goat Rock Formation MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-48 Deumbur Nakri MöndurRde’u ’bur nag ri mon dur Black Mountain Hill MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-49 Rindzin MöndurRi ’dzin mon dur Mountain Holder MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
D-50 Rirung MöndurRi rung mon dur GegyéDge rgyas
D-51 Jorkhok’Byor khog (?) Diseased Ruins (?) GertséSger rtse
D-52 Sergam MöndurSer sgam mon dur Yellow Chest MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-53 Luma Drak MöndurLu ma brag mon dur Rock Springs MönMon Tombs NyimaNyi ma
D-54 NyenmarGnyan dmar Red Nyen NyimaNyi ma
D-55 Chöser MöndurPhyod ser mon dur NyimaNyi ma
D-56 NeléNe le (A kind of eagle) NyimaNyi ma
D-57 Nakra Drakseng MöndurNag ra brag seng mon dur Black Expanse Lion Rock MönMon Tombs NyimaNyi ma
D-58 Beltsa GyangtrokBal tshwa gyang khrog Wool Salt Ruins SagaSa dga’
D-59 Gyamnak MönkhangGyam nag mon khang Black Cliff Shelter MönMon Houses SagaSa dga’
D-60 Nyerma Gyam MöndoGnyer ma gyam mon rdo Furrowed Cliff Shelter MönMon Stones PurangSpu rang
D-61 Jiu MöndoByi’u mon rdo Small Bird MönMon Stones PurangSpu rang
D-62 Dripra MöndurGrib ra mon dur Contamination Enclosures MönMon Tombs PurangSpu rang
D-63 SechungSe chung (?) GarSgar
D-64 DingdumSdings zlum Round Eminence TsamdaRtsa mda’
D-65 Ser RiriSer ris ris Yellow Markings (?) GarSgar
D-66 Keltra MöndurSkal khra mon dur RutokRu thog
D-67 Name unknown RutokRu thog
D-68 Name unknown RutokRu thog
D-69 Mandep NupmaDmar ldebs nub ma Red Slope West GegyéDge rgyas
D-70 Dramé DzukGra ma’i rdzugs Drongpa’Brong pa
D-71 Tratsang MöndurKhra tshang mon dur Hawk’s Nest MönMon Tombs TsochenMtsho chen
D-72 Nara MöndurSna ra mon dur Prow Expanse MönMon Tombs TsochenMtsho chen
D-73 Ronggo MöndurRong mgo mon dur Gorge Head MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-74 KarkhukDkar khug White Niche NakchuNag chu
D-75 GönroDgon ro Ruined Monastery NakchuNag chu
D-76 RonglungRong lung Gorge Country NakchuNag chu
D-77 Gyeltsen TönpoRgyal mtshan mthon po Victory Banner Heights AmdoA mdo
D-78 DarchenDar chen Great Flag (?) AmdoA mdo
D-79 MarrongDmar rong Red Gorge PelgönDpal mgon
D-80 LaroGla ro and KhenbukMkhan sbug PelgönDpal mgon
D-81 Migön ChönyiMi mgon chos nyid Human Protector Essential Nature PelgönDpal mgon
D-82 GokriSgog ri Garlic Mountain (?) PelgönDpal mgon
D-83 SerlungGser lung Golden Valley ShentsaShan rtsa
D-84 TsemdaRtse mda’ Arrow Peak ShentsaShan rtsa
D-85 TrachenBkra chen Very Beautiful ShentsaShan rtsa
D-86 SangkharBsang mkhar Incense Brazier PelgönDpal mgon
D-87 SholopukSho lo phug ShentsaShan rtsa
D-88 DarlungDar lung Flag Valley (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-89 DringakGrib ’gag Contamination Stoppage NyimaNyi ma
D-90 Naser TangGna’ gser thang Golden Blue Sheep Plain (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
D-91 Tsokgi MöndurBtsog gi mon dur MönMon Tombs of Filth RutokRu thog
D-92 GyamgyaGyam rgya Big Cliff Shelter RutokRu thog
D-93 Dorjé DzongRdo rje rdzong Adamantine Fortress RutokRu thog
D-94 TsakamTshwa skam Dried Salt RutokRu thog
D-95 Trandra MöndurKhra ’dra mon dur RutokRu thog
D-96 Drak NakpoBrag nag po Black Rock RutokRu thog
D-97 Gyangro NadongGyang ro sna gdong Prow Face Ruins NakchuNag chu
D-98 Zhunmé DoZhun ma’i mdo (?) NakchuNag chu
D-99 DeurukRde’u rug Hills Side by Side Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-100 NyaṆya Fish Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-101 NedéGnas sde Holy District Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-102 Genmo DeumburRgan mo rde’u ’bur Old Women Hill Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-103 Chumik Do LatséChu mig mdo la btsas Springs Confluence Cairn Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-104 Shongdo RaShong rdo ra (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-105 Tara MönraRta ra mon ra and Gyado MönraRgya rdo mon ra Horse Corral MönMon Enclosures NyimaNyi ma
D-106 Belmo MöndurBal mo mon dur (?) GertséSger rtse
D-107 Bumtor Chok Möndur’Bum gtor mchog mon dur Excellent Offering Sculptures Shrine MönMon Tombs (?) GertséSger rtse
D-108 Trachap MöndurKhra chab mon dur GertséSger rtse
D-109 Salung MöndurSa lung mon dur Earth Valley MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-110 Gakchen’Gag chen (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-111 Shakdé MöndurShag sde mon dur Gravel Sector MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-112 Demchok MöndurBde mchog mon dur DemchokBde mchog299 MönMon Tombs GarSgar
D-113 KolokKo logs RutokRu thog
D-114 RakderRag sder RutokRu thog
D-115 DraktsukBrag gtsug Rock Formation Crown RutokRu thog
D-116 NakgyamNag gyam Black Cliff Shelter Drongpa’Brong pa
D-117 Tsanyer Marmbur MönkhangTsha gnyer dmar ’bur mon khang GegyéDge rgyas
D-118 Chutiku MönkhangChu thig’u mon khang (?) GegyéDge rgyas
D-119 Doring BarmaRdo ring bar ma Middle Long-stone GertséSger rtse
D-120 Radra Khordo MöndurRa gra ’khor rdo mon dur GertséSger rtse
D-121 Dungri Rachung MöndurDung ri ra chung mon ’dur Conch Mountain Small Enclosures MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-122 Ritil Tsuk MöndurRi mthil gtsug mon dur Base of the Mountain Crown Ornament MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-123 Pöri MöndurSpos ri mon dur Fragrant Mountain MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-124 KyipzhungSkyibs gzhung Rock Shelter Pasture NyimaNyi ma
D-125 Tsitsi Mönré TangkaRtsi rtsid mon ra’i thang kha (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-126 Chepu MönraChad phu mon ra (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-127 SemodoSe mo do/ SinmodoSrin mo do/ NangdoNang do Island of the sinmosrin mo / Inner Island PelgönDpal mgon
D-128 KhandokKha ’dogs (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-129 Tsodo MöndurMtsho do mon dur Lake Island MönMon Tombs Drongpa’Brong pa
D-130 Gyamngönpo MöndurGyam sngon po mon dur Blue Rock Shelter MönMon Tomb GertséSger rtse
D-131 Name Unknown Drongpa’Brong pa
D-132 Omlung’Om lung Tamarisk Valley RutokRu thog

II.3 Cubic Mountaintop Tombs

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
E-1 Mönpa NakpoMon pa nag po Black MönMon pa GegyéDge rgyas
E-2 Ri Raser MöndurRi ra ser mon dur Yellow Goat Mountain MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
E-3 Tsamé Gösa MöndurRtswa med god sa mon dur No Grass Place of Loss MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
E-4 Trotung MöndurKhro thung mon dur TrotungKhro thung300 MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
E-5 Dotradum MöndurRdo khra zlum mon dur Round Variegated Rock MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
E-6 Rigyel MöndurRi rgyal mon dur Monarch Mountain MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
E-7 Gelhé Gokar MöndurDge lhas mgo dkar mon dur White Head Virtuous Fold MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
E-8 Tanu MöndurRta nu mon dur Horse Teat MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
E-9 Namalung MönkhangNa ma lung mon khang Grasslands Valley MönMon House GegyéDge rgyas
E-10 Trashi DarlungBkra shis dar lung Drongpa’Brong pa
E-11 Endritsé MöndurAn ’bri rtse mon dur (?) GarSgar
E-12 Drönchung’Bron chung mon dur (?) GegyéDge rgyas
E-13 NyukriSmyug ri Pen Mountain GegyéDge rgyas
E-14 Drakrel ChokBrag ral lcog Rock Hood Battlement GegyéDge rgyas
E-15 GomkhorSgom ’khor Meditation Circle GegyéDge rgyas
E-16 Gyamchung MöndurGyam chung mon dur Small Cliff Shelter MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
E-17 Milam KhyilamMi lam khyi lam Human Path Dog Path GertséSger rtse
E-18 Denjangri Mukpo DongLdan byang ri smug po gdong Northern Purplish Mountainous Face (?) GertséSger rtse
E-19 Tsuk SerraGtsug ser ra Top Yellow Expanse GertséSger rtse
E-20 Gyaruk MöndurRgya rug mon dur (?) NyimaNyi ma
E-21 Dzari RakpaRdza ri rag pa Tawny Talus Mountain PurangSpu rang
E-22 Cheri TeldzongPhye ri thal rdzong Powder Mountain Dust Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
E-23 PaktukPags mthug Thick Hide GertséSger rtse
E-24 Yadra TrikG.ya’ sbra khrigs Slate Tents in Rows GertséSger rtse
E-25 Tagen GyamnariRta rgan gyam sna ri Old Horse Rock Shelter Prow GertséSger rtse
E-26 Tremo KharSpre mo mkhar Female Ape Castle (?) PurangSpu rang
E-27 Rübel MukpoRus sbal smug po Purplish Turtle PurangSpu rang
E-28 Tsokgi MöndurBtsog gi mon dur MönMon Tombs of Filth RutokRu thog
E-29 ShankhorwaShar ’khor ba Eastern World (?) GegyéDge rgyas
E-30 Alhé Möndur’A lhas mon dur GegyéDge rgyas
E-31 Yitsé KharYid rtse mkhar Delight Peak Castle GegyéDge rgyas
E-32 Selhé MönkhangGsas lhas mon khang (?) Enclosure of the gsas MönMon Houses GertséSger rtse

II.4 Shrines, Minor Stone Constructions and Miscellaneous Structures

Site number Site name English Equivalent county
F-1 Pangar Zhungkhang GokDpa’ ngar gzhung khang gog Mighty Hero Pasture Ruined Houses GegyéDge rgyas
F-2 Guru BumpaGu ru ’bum pa PurangSpu rang
F-3 Khyinak RongKhyi nag rong Black Dog Gorge GegyéDge rgyas

III. Agricultural Structures

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
G-1 bamBa’am NyimaNyi ma
G-2 DarchungDar chung Small Flag (?) NyimaNyi ma
G-3 LungönLu sngon Blue Spring NyimaNyi ma

IV. Earthworks

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
H-1 Drukmö Trayé’Brug mo’i sbra yas Erected Tent of Drukmo’brug mo Damzhung’Dam gzhung
H-2 Kyangrak KhagokRkyang rag kha gog Bottom Side of the Tawny Onager Damzhung’Dam gzhung
H-3 YarlangYar lang Damzhung’Dam gzhung
H-4 Drilam’Bri lam Female Yak Path Damzhung’Dam gzhung

V.1 Petroglyphs

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
I-1 Randrok TrangRwa ’brog ’phrang Horn Pasture Narrow Passage RutokRu thog
I-2 RigyelRi rgyal Monarch Mountain GertséSger rtse
I-3 Kapren PungriSkabs ren spungs ri RutokRu thog
I-4 GongraGong ra (?) RutokRu thog
I-5 GokraSgog ra ? RutokRu thog
I-6 DrakdongBrag gdong Rock Formation Face RutokRu thog
I-7 Khampa RachoKham pa rwa co RutokRu thog
I-8 Draklung NubmaBrag lung nub ma Rock Valley West RutokRu thog
I-9 Driuchu TangGri’u chu thang (?) RutokRu thog
I-10 ChulungChu lung Water Valley RutokRu thog
I-11 SergamGser sgam Golden Chest TsamdaRtsa mda’
I-12 BaoléBa’o lhas (?) RutokRu thog
I-13 NgorgyamSngor gyam (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I-14 Trugu YarkaPhru gu dbyar ka Child’s Summer Plain (?) RutokRu thog
I-15 GyalingRgya gling Wide Realm NyimaNyi ma
I-16 ShaksangBshag bsangs Confession Purification NyimaNyi ma
I-17 DzongchenRdzong chen Great Fortress RutokRu thog
I-18 Sherang KharlungShe rang mkhar lung RutokRu thog
I-19 Nowa YangdoRno ba g.yang rdo (?) RutokRu thog
I-20 Chötenbuk NakhaMchod rten sbug sna kha Stupa Nook Prow RutokRu thog
I-21 Tengtsé TsamkhangSteng rtse mtshams khang Lofty Peak Meditation House RutokRu thog
I-22 Tari DrakpukRta ri brag phug Horse Mountain Cave GertséSger rtse
I-23 Kyao LekhangSkya’o lha khang (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I-24 DrakgyamBrag gyam Rock Formation Cliff Shelter GarSgar
I-25 DraktsukBrag gtsug Rock Formation Crown RutokRu thog
I-26 NawolungGna’ bo lung Male Blue Sheep Valley RutokRu thog
I-27 GyaplungRgyab lung (West) Rear Valley RutokRu thog
I-28 Takhampa RiMtha’ kham pa ri Edge of Brown Mountain RutokRu thog
I-29 NgosokSngo sog (?) RutokRu thog
I-30 Sherang Nekha SharmaShe rang sna kha shar ma RutokRu thog
I-31 Gyella DingRgyal la lding Soaring Victory Pass (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I-32 KyildrumDkyil sgrum (?) GegyéDge rgyas

V.2 Pictographs

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
J-1 Trashi DochungBkra shis do chung Small Auspicious Headland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
J-2 Trashi DochenBkra shis do chen Big Auspicious Headland Damzhung’Dam gzhung
J-3 Khyigen Gakpa DoKhyi rgan gag pa do Barking Old Dog Headland PelgönDpal mgon
J-4 Rama DoRa ma do Female Goat Headland PelgönDpal mgon
J-5 Tongshong PukStong shong phug One Thousand Capacity Cave PelgönDpal mgon
J-6 Riknga DoRigs lnga do Five Diadems Crown Headland PelgönDpal mgon
J-7 ChedoLce do PelgönDpal mgon
J-8 Lhakhang MarchakLha khang dmar chag Red-colored Temple TsochenMtsho chen
J-9 Drakkhung DzepoBrag khung mdzes po Beautiful Grotto NyimaNyi ma
J-10 TamkachenTham ka can With Seals TsamdaRtsa mda’
J-11 Namyang PukGnam g.yang phug Celestial Good Fortune Cave ShentsaShan rtsa
J-12 Lhari DruppukLha ris sgrub phug Divine Drawings Religious Attainment Cave ShentsaShan rtsa
J-13 Shollo PukShol lo phug (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
J-14 Loppön PukSlob dpon phug LoppönSlob dpon’s Cave301 ShentsaShan rtsa
J-15 Kyidrom Godru ZhiSkyid sgrom sgo gru bzhi Happiness Chest Square Door ShentsaShan rtsa
J-16 Garsöl DrakpukSgar gsol brag phug ShentsaShan rtsa
J-17 Otsel PukO rtsal phug (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
J-18 Chukhargyam DruppukChu mkhar gyam sgrub phug Water Castle Cliff Shelter Religious Practice Cave RutokRu thog
J-19 Lhandré PukLha ’dre phug Cave of the Lhalha and Dré’dre302 ShentsaShan rtsa
J-20 Pranglam’Phrang lam Narrow Passage Drongpa’Brong pa


[253] The classification of individual sites is made according to the most prominent type of monument found at each location. A good number of sites, nevertheless, have more than one kind of archaeological remains.
[254] Due to the extreme degradation of certain sites, their precise residential architectural composition could not be determined.
[255] Question marks in this column denote that the subtype noted is uncertain.
[256] DraGra/dramagra ma is a woody shrub that grows in certain parts of Upper Tibet.
[257] This appears to be the best spelling, reflecting the etymological basis of the site designation. See Bellezza, Calling Down the Gods, 406 (n. 222).
[258] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Upper Tibet, I refer to this site as Pangmar Zhungkhang GokSpang dmar gzhung khang gog (Marshy Red Pasture Ruined Habitations). I have now determined that this is a corrupted designation of the site.
[259] The name of an important BönBon tutelary god.
[260] The name of a popular Tibetan goddess.
[261] Tisti appears to be a spelling for the Zhang ZhungZhang zhung word for water. It is also sometimes rendered: tigti/titi.
[262] Due to the extreme degradation of certain sites, their precise residential architectural composition could not be determined.
[263] I have recorded this name as Gopo Nam SumSgo po rnam gsum (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), but this is a less desirable rendering than I provide here.
[264] This site also appears to be called PukmoPhug mo (Grotto).
[265] In Bellezza, “A Preliminary Archaeological Survey of Da rog mtsho,” 56-90, I refer to this headland as dogi pukdo gi phug, information I received from a local resident pointing to the site from afar. In actuality, DokyilbukDo dkyil sbug (sic) is the name of the third and smallest island in DaroktsoDa rog mtsho.
[266] SetrapBse khrab is the name of an important Nyingmarnying ma protector deity.
[267] A Nyingmarnying ma lama of the 19th century CE.
[268] A kind of man-eating demon.
[269] As pertains to the DangraDang ra and TagoRta rgo region, Kelzang SichöSkal bzang sri chod writes: “At the place known as Khyak Dorang’Khyags rdo rang there are the ruins of an ancient castle. In the oral tradition, it is said that this was the palace of the Zhang ZhungZhang zhung king TridemKhri sdems (=DemLdems), holder of the bird horns.” (Kelsang SichöSkal bsang sri chod. “Khakgi Logyü RaktsamKhag gi lo rgyus rags tsam” in bod ljongs nag chu sa khul gyi lo rgyus rig gnas 4 (1992): 111-146: 113.). This dorangrdo rang (colloquial spelling) appears to be the one and same place as Doringrdo ring.
[270] BongchenBong chen (Large Boulder) is the correct name for what I formerly designated Pongchen’Phong chen (Great Archery) (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[271] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Upper Tibet, 78, I record the name of this site as mchod rten gong bzang can, the appellation that local inhabitants (gang riwagangs ri ba) now use. Nevertheless, Dzamling Ganggyel Tisé Karchak’Dzam gling gangs rgyal ti se’i dkar chag, by Karru Drupwang Tendzin RinchenDkar ru grub dbang bstan ’dzin rin chen (born 1801 CE), records the name of this BönBon site as Chöten Khongseng ChenMchod rten khong seng can.
[272] A generic term for Indian and other western invaders of NgariMnga’ ris.
[273] According to popular legend, an aboriginal tribe of NgariMnga’ ris.
[274] This site is comprised of what I formerly presented as Sené Gau DruppukSad ne ga’u sgrub phug (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[275] According to Mimi Church and Mariette Wiebenga (in personal communication), this site is actually Shawa Dong LhakhangSha ba gdong lha khang. They visited here on a pilgrimage and study tour in 2005. In 1998, I identified another site at DaroktsoDa rog mtsho as Shawa Dong LhakhangSha ba gdong lha khang (B-103). Further inquiry is needed to verify these identifications.
[276] Named for the imperial period (?) BönBon practitioner Mushö TramDmu shod kram.
[277] In many of the dialects of NakchuNag chu and NaktsangNag tshang, ringring (“long”) is pronounced rang. I have sometimes used this phonetic rendering in my publications, but in this work I have opted for the standard orthography.
[278] I have presented the name of this site as Mönra YargenMon ra yar gan (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), a less desirable spelling. YarkéYar rked and markémar rked are common drokpa’brog pa geographical terms referring to above and below the “waist” (base), respectively, of hills and mountains.
[279] This is the local name for what was formerly called Oma Doring’O ma rdo ring (named for the old camp or township) (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet). In the local Stod dialect, the jampo’jam po (“smooth”) part of the site’s name denotes terrain that is free of rocks and other obstructions.
[280] Named after A Tak PelmoA stag dpal mo/A Tak LumoA stag klu mo, a prominent goddess in the GesarGe sar epic.
[281] The wife of the Tibetan epic hero, Ling GesarGling ge sar.
[282] A type of fierce martial spirit.
[283] A type of powerful elemental spirit.
[284] A type of elemental spirit.
[285] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet, I employ the standard word for “bride” (namamna’ ma), but the site is actually known by an epithet for bride in the local tökéstod skad dialect (pamodpa’ mo).
[286] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet, I mistakenly call this site “YukhambuYu kham bu.” This was the result of a faulty transcription of orally derived information.
[287] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet, I furnish a less desirable rendering of this site name.
[288] I had originally classified SipraSrib ra as habitational in pursuance to local folklore (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet). Subsequent analysis based on data from archaic cultural horizon archaeological sites throughout Upper Tibet, however, suggests that this site should be reclassified as funerary in nature. The morphological characteristics of the site warrant such a reordering of its typology.
[289] SernyaGser nya (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet) is probably funerary in nature, rather than representative of residential ruins, despite the folklore to the contrary.
[290] AmchokA mchog (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet) has also been reclassified as a funerary site. It is comprised of terraced superstructures, the most common type of ancient cemetery in the eastern JangtangByang thang.
[291] There appear to be various funerary structures at this site, although structures with other types of functions may also be represented. KyelungSkye lung and LungsumLung gsum was first surveyed in Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet, and then revisited in 2004.
[292] This site, with its six small superficial structures (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), is also best reclassified as funerary in function.
[293] While the 121 cairns at this site may have been built to conceal or reconfigure an array of pillars (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), the various superficial structures (Mönramon ra) should be classified as having a funerary and not domiciliary function.
[294] LukdoLug do (Bellezza. Divine Dyads) may actually be predominantly ceremonial and/or burial in nature rather than residential, thus its reclassification.
[295] This site is located in an area known as NyizhukNyi gzhung, which is closely associated with the old Bönpobon po enclave of NgamöSnga mos (classical spelling) and NgamongRnga mong (vernacular spelling). The last Bönpobon po of NyizhukNyi gzhung were converted to Buddhism (Karma Kagyükarma bka’ brgyud) in the 1980s.
[296] The morphological characteristics of Domri NakhaDom ri gna’ kha are generally in keeping with funerary monuments. I originally classified this site in a miscellaneous category (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[297] A subsequent survey of Milhé KhordoMi lhas ’khor mdo has determined that it is funerary in nature. I originally classified this site in a miscellaneous category (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[298] In Bellezza. Antiquities of Upper Tibet, I refer to this site as thar lcang, a less desirable rendering.
[299] A Vajrayāna tutelary god.
[300] Named after an evil uncle in the GesarGe sar epic.
[301] Cave in local folklore associated with the Vajrayāna master Loppön Pema JungnéSlob dpon pad ma ’byung gnas.
[302] Elemental spirits of the dichotomous universe.

Note Citation for Page

John Vincent Bellezza, (Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010), .

Bibliographic Citation

John Vincent Bellezza. . Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010.