Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
by John Vincent Bellezza
Edited by Geoffrey Barstow, Mickey Stockwell and Michael White
Tibetan & Himalayan Library
Published under the THL Digital Text License.

II.2 Superficial Structures (Primarily Funerary Superstructures)

Site number Site name English Equivalent County
D-1 SipraSrib ra288 Shady Zone Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-2 SernyaGser nya289 Golden Fish Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-3 AmchokA chog290 Ear Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-4 KyelungSkye lung and LungsumLung gsum291 Growth Valley and Three Valleys Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-5 TaklungStag lung292 Tiger Valley ShentsaShan rtsa
D-6 Chöten GyawaMchod rten brgya ba293 One Hundred Stupas ShentsaShan rtsa
D-7 LukdoLug do294 Sheep Headland PelgönDpal mgon
D-8 MönraMon ra (NyilungNyi lung)295 MönMon Enclosures (Sun Valley) TsochenMtsho chen
D-9 Langri DrokmarGlang ri ’brog dmar Elephant Mountain Red Pasture TsochenMtsho chen
D-10 MönraMon ra (Taktong LhomaStag stong lho ma) MönMon Enclosures TsochenMtsho chen
D-11 Mönpé DurkhungMon pa’i dur khung Tombs of the MönpaMon pa NyimaNyi ma
D-12 KhokroKhog ro Ruins NyimaNyi ma
D-13 Tsira MöndurRtsid ra mon dur (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-14 Drak Karnak DingBrag dkar nag sdings White Rock Formation Black Eminence NyimaNyi ma
D-15 DarchungDar chung Small Flag (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-16 Tsakha MönkhangTshwa kha mon khang Salt Plain MönMon Houses GegyéDge rgyas
D-17 Randrok PranggoRwa ’brog ’phrang sgo Horn Pasture Narrow Passage Portal RutokRu thog
D-18 Domri NakhaDom ri gna’ kha (?)296 Bear Mountain Blue Sheep Plain (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-19 Milhé KhordoMi lhas ’khor mdo297 Human Habitation Juncture (?) RutokRu thog
D-20 Lukdo PungléLug rdo spungs lhas Sheep Rock Meadow Corral ShentsaShan rtsa
D-21 Nyala NgorilRnya la sngo ril (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-22 ChaptokChabs thog (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-23 DramchakGram phyag (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-24 Mönra YarkéMon ra yar rked Above the Foot of the Mountain MönMon Enclosures NyimaNyi ma
D 25 GötsangRgod tshang Vulture’s Nest NyimaNyi ma
D-26 Luma KarmoLu ma dkar mo White Springs NyimaNyi ma
D-27 Khargong’Khar sgong Bell Metal Egg (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-28 TroklamKhrog lam Delapidated Way GertséSger rtse
D-29 Guru Rinpoché Druppuk MönroGu ru rin po che sgrub phug mon ro MönMon Graves of Guru RinpochéGu ru rin po che’s Religious Attainment Cave GertséSger rtse
D-30 SaktéSag the GertséSger rtse
D-31 Dora KyakyokRdo ra skya skyog (?) GertséSger rtse
D-32 Dzokdong’Dzog gdong (?) GertséSger rtse
D-33 RigyelRi rgyal Monarch Mountain GertséSger rtse
D-34 DrabukGra sbug dramagra ma Nook GertséSger rtse
D-35 Mencham KarmoSman lcam dkar mo White Lady GegyéDge rgyas
D-36 GokraSgog ra ? RutokRu thog
D-37 Draklung NubmaBrag lung nub ma Rock Valley West RutokRu thog
D-38 Chukhargyam MöndurChu mkhar gyam mon dur Water Castle Rock Shelter MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-39 TajangMtha’ byang298 Northern Edge GarSgar
D-40 Ormo Gang’Or mo sgang GegyéDge rgyas
D-41 Drak TsangpoBrag gtsang po Rock Formation River PurangSpu rang
D-42 Purang KhyölSpu rang ’khyol PurangSpu rang
D-43 Driten MöndurDri brtan mon dur (?) GarSgar
D-44 Burkar Zhung’Bur dkar gzhung White Hill Pasture GegyéDge rgyas
D-45 Nakra MöndurNag ra mon dur Black Expanse MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
D-46 Tsapo DeumburTshwa po rde’u ’bur Salt Hill GegyéDge rgyas
D-47 Drakratar MöndurBrag ra thar mon dur Freed Goat Rock Formation MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-48 Deumbur Nakri MöndurRde’u ’bur nag ri mon dur Black Mountain Hill MönMon Tombs RutokRu thog
D-49 Rindzin MöndurRi ’dzin mon dur Mountain Holder MönMon Tombs GegyéDge rgyas
D-50 Rirung MöndurRi rung mon dur GegyéDge rgyas
D-51 Jorkhok’Byor khog (?) Diseased Ruins (?) GertséSger rtse
D-52 Sergam MöndurSer sgam mon dur Yellow Chest MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-53 Luma Drak MöndurLu ma brag mon dur Rock Springs MönMon Tombs NyimaNyi ma
D-54 NyenmarGnyan dmar Red Nyen NyimaNyi ma
D-55 Chöser MöndurPhyod ser mon dur NyimaNyi ma
D-56 NeléNe le (A kind of eagle) NyimaNyi ma
D-57 Nakra Drakseng MöndurNag ra brag seng mon dur Black Expanse Lion Rock MönMon Tombs NyimaNyi ma
D-58 Beltsa GyangtrokBal tshwa gyang khrog Wool Salt Ruins SagaSa dga’
D-59 Gyamnak MönkhangGyam nag mon khang Black Cliff Shelter MönMon Houses SagaSa dga’
D-60 Nyerma Gyam MöndoGnyer ma gyam mon rdo Furrowed Cliff Shelter MönMon Stones PurangSpu rang
D-61 Jiu MöndoByi’u mon rdo Small Bird MönMon Stones PurangSpu rang
D-62 Dripra MöndurGrib ra mon dur Contamination Enclosures MönMon Tombs PurangSpu rang
D-63 SechungSe chung (?) GarSgar
D-64 DingdumSdings zlum Round Eminence TsamdaRtsa mda’
D-65 Ser RiriSer ris ris Yellow Markings (?) GarSgar
D-66 Keltra MöndurSkal khra mon dur RutokRu thog
D-67 Name unknown RutokRu thog
D-68 Name unknown RutokRu thog
D-69 Mandep NupmaDmar ldebs nub ma Red Slope West GegyéDge rgyas
D-70 Dramé DzukGra ma’i rdzugs Drongpa’Brong pa
D-71 Tratsang MöndurKhra tshang mon dur Hawk’s Nest MönMon Tombs TsochenMtsho chen
D-72 Nara MöndurSna ra mon dur Prow Expanse MönMon Tombs TsochenMtsho chen
D-73 Ronggo MöndurRong mgo mon dur Gorge Head MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-74 KarkhukDkar khug White Niche NakchuNag chu
D-75 GönroDgon ro Ruined Monastery NakchuNag chu
D-76 RonglungRong lung Gorge Country NakchuNag chu
D-77 Gyeltsen TönpoRgyal mtshan mthon po Victory Banner Heights AmdoA mdo
D-78 DarchenDar chen Great Flag (?) AmdoA mdo
D-79 MarrongDmar rong Red Gorge PelgönDpal mgon
D-80 LaroGla ro and KhenbukMkhan sbug PelgönDpal mgon
D-81 Migön ChönyiMi mgon chos nyid Human Protector Essential Nature PelgönDpal mgon
D-82 GokriSgog ri Garlic Mountain (?) PelgönDpal mgon
D-83 SerlungGser lung Golden Valley ShentsaShan rtsa
D-84 TsemdaRtse mda’ Arrow Peak ShentsaShan rtsa
D-85 TrachenBkra chen Very Beautiful ShentsaShan rtsa
D-86 SangkharBsang mkhar Incense Brazier PelgönDpal mgon
D-87 SholopukSho lo phug ShentsaShan rtsa
D-88 DarlungDar lung Flag Valley (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-89 DringakGrib ’gag Contamination Stoppage NyimaNyi ma
D-90 Naser TangGna’ gser thang Golden Blue Sheep Plain (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
D-91 Tsokgi MöndurBtsog gi mon dur MönMon Tombs of Filth RutokRu thog
D-92 GyamgyaGyam rgya Big Cliff Shelter RutokRu thog
D-93 Dorjé DzongRdo rje rdzong Adamantine Fortress RutokRu thog
D-94 TsakamTshwa skam Dried Salt RutokRu thog
D-95 Trandra MöndurKhra ’dra mon dur RutokRu thog
D-96 Drak NakpoBrag nag po Black Rock RutokRu thog
D-97 Gyangro NadongGyang ro sna gdong Prow Face Ruins NakchuNag chu
D-98 Zhunmé DoZhun ma’i mdo (?) NakchuNag chu
D-99 DeurukRde’u rug Hills Side by Side Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-100 NyaṆya Fish Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-101 NedéGnas sde Holy District Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-102 Genmo DeumburRgan mo rde’u ’bur Old Women Hill Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-103 Chumik Do LatséChu mig mdo la btsas Springs Confluence Cairn Damzhung’Dam gzhung
D-104 Shongdo RaShong rdo ra (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-105 Tara MönraRta ra mon ra and Gyado MönraRgya rdo mon ra Horse Corral MönMon Enclosures NyimaNyi ma
D-106 Belmo MöndurBal mo mon dur (?) GertséSger rtse
D-107 Bumtor Chok Möndur’Bum gtor mchog mon dur Excellent Offering Sculptures Shrine MönMon Tombs (?) GertséSger rtse
D-108 Trachap MöndurKhra chab mon dur GertséSger rtse
D-109 Salung MöndurSa lung mon dur Earth Valley MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-110 Gakchen’Gag chen (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-111 Shakdé MöndurShag sde mon dur Gravel Sector MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-112 Demchok MöndurBde mchog mon dur DemchokBde mchog299 MönMon Tombs GarSgar
D-113 KolokKo logs RutokRu thog
D-114 RakderRag sder RutokRu thog
D-115 DraktsukBrag gtsug Rock Formation Crown RutokRu thog
D-116 NakgyamNag gyam Black Cliff Shelter Drongpa’Brong pa
D-117 Tsanyer Marmbur MönkhangTsha gnyer dmar ’bur mon khang GegyéDge rgyas
D-118 Chutiku MönkhangChu thig’u mon khang (?) GegyéDge rgyas
D-119 Doring BarmaRdo ring bar ma Middle Long-stone GertséSger rtse
D-120 Radra Khordo MöndurRa gra ’khor rdo mon dur GertséSger rtse
D-121 Dungri Rachung MöndurDung ri ra chung mon ’dur Conch Mountain Small Enclosures MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-122 Ritil Tsuk MöndurRi mthil gtsug mon dur Base of the Mountain Crown Ornament MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-123 Pöri MöndurSpos ri mon dur Fragrant Mountain MönMon Tombs GertséSger rtse
D-124 KyipzhungSkyibs gzhung Rock Shelter Pasture NyimaNyi ma
D-125 Tsitsi Mönré TangkaRtsi rtsid mon ra’i thang kha (?) NyimaNyi ma
D-126 Chepu MönraChad phu mon ra (?) ShentsaShan rtsa
D-127 SemodoSe mo do/ SinmodoSrin mo do/ NangdoNang do Island of the sinmosrin mo / Inner Island PelgönDpal mgon
D-128 KhandokKha ’dogs (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
D-129 Tsodo MöndurMtsho do mon dur Lake Island MönMon Tombs Drongpa’Brong pa
D-130 Gyamngönpo MöndurGyam sngon po mon dur Blue Rock Shelter MönMon Tomb GertséSger rtse
D-131 Name Unknown Drongpa’Brong pa
D-132 Omlung’Om lung Tamarisk Valley RutokRu thog

Notes

[288] I had originally classified SipraSrib ra as habitational in pursuance to local folklore (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet). Subsequent analysis based on data from archaic cultural horizon archaeological sites throughout Upper Tibet, however, suggests that this site should be reclassified as funerary in nature. The morphological characteristics of the site warrant such a reordering of its typology.
[289] SernyaGser nya (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet) is probably funerary in nature, rather than representative of residential ruins, despite the folklore to the contrary.
[290] AmchokA mchog (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet) has also been reclassified as a funerary site. It is comprised of terraced superstructures, the most common type of ancient cemetery in the eastern JangtangByang thang.
[291] There appear to be various funerary structures at this site, although structures with other types of functions may also be represented. KyelungSkye lung and LungsumLung gsum was first surveyed in Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet, and then revisited in 2004.
[292] This site, with its six small superficial structures (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), is also best reclassified as funerary in function.
[293] While the 121 cairns at this site may have been built to conceal or reconfigure an array of pillars (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet), the various superficial structures (Mönramon ra) should be classified as having a funerary and not domiciliary function.
[294] LukdoLug do (Bellezza. Divine Dyads) may actually be predominantly ceremonial and/or burial in nature rather than residential, thus its reclassification.
[295] This site is located in an area known as NyizhukNyi gzhung, which is closely associated with the old Bönpobon po enclave of NgamöSnga mos (classical spelling) and NgamongRnga mong (vernacular spelling). The last Bönpobon po of NyizhukNyi gzhung were converted to Buddhism (Karma Kagyükarma bka’ brgyud) in the 1980s.
[296] The morphological characteristics of Domri NakhaDom ri gna’ kha are generally in keeping with funerary monuments. I originally classified this site in a miscellaneous category (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[297] A subsequent survey of Milhé KhordoMi lhas ’khor mdo has determined that it is funerary in nature. I originally classified this site in a miscellaneous category (Bellezza, Antiquities of Northern Tibet).
[298] In Bellezza. Antiquities of Upper Tibet, I refer to this site as thar lcang, a less desirable rendering.
[299] A Vajrayāna tutelary god.
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Note Citation for Page

John Vincent Bellezza, (Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010), .

Bibliographic Citation

John Vincent Bellezza. . Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010.