Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
by John Vincent Bellezza
Edited by Geoffrey Barstow, Mickey Stockwell and Michael White
Tibetan & Himalayan Library
Published under the THL Digital Text License.

I.1. Residential Structures Occupying Summits253

  1. I.1a: All-stone corbelled buildings
  2. I.1b: Edifices built with timbers
  3. I.1c: Solitary rampart networks
  4. I.1x: Indeterminate subtype254
Type Site number Site name English Equivalent County
I.1a A-1 DzongserRdzong ser Yellow Fortress ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1x A-2 DzongnakRdzong nag Black Fortress ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1a?255 A-3 Shawa DrakSha ba brag Deer Rock ShentsaShan rtsa
I.1x A-4 Ombu Dzong’Om bu rdzong/ Yumdruk Tsen DzongG.yu ’brug btsan rdzong Turquoise Dragon Fortress of the Tsenbtsan NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-5 Dangra Khyung DzongDang ra khyung rdzong Horned Eagle Fortress of Dang ra NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-6 Gyampé DzongGyam pa’i rdzong Fortress of the Cliff Shelter NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-7 Arpo DzongAr po rdzong NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-8 Drak Dongwu Tsé DzongBrag gdong dbu rtse rdzong/Dragchungwu TséBrag chung dbu rtse Rock Face Peak Fortress/Small Rock Formation Peak Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-9 Gyangpé Tsuk DzongGyang pa’i gtsug rdzong Acme Fortress of Walls NyimaNyi ma
I.1a A-10 Chuktso Drokpo DzongPhyug tsho grog po rdzong Wealthy Camp Ravine Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-11 TsenrakTsan rag NyimaNyi ma
I.1a? A-12 Serdzö DzongSer mdzod rdzong Yellow Treasury Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1a? A-13 Zhingchen MönkharZhing chen mon mkhar Great Farm MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1a? A-14 Shanglü Podrang MönkharShang klu’i pho brang mon mkhar Shang lutsenklu btsan Palace MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-15 Nyachu DzongkarNya chu rdzong dkar Fish River White Fortress RutokRu thog
I.1b A-16 Khurang KhargokKhu rang mkhar gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-17 Rutok Shanpé KharRu thog bshan pa’i mkhar/ DzongriRdzong ri RutokRu thog Butcher’s Castle / Fortress Mountain RutokRu thog
I.1a? A-18 DrakdongBrag gdong Rock Formation Face RutokRu thog
I.1a A-19 Lokpuk KharGlog phug mkhar Lightning Cave Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-20 Hangdel DzongHang dal rdzong NyimaNyi ma
I.1b A-21 Drarong Mön DzongGra rong mon rdzong DraGra256 Gorge MönMon Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1b A-22 Zhingkhar KhargokZhing mkhar mkhar gog Castle Ruins Farm Castle GarSgar
I.1a A-23 Apa Drekar Pungpa MönkharA pha ’dre dkar spungs pa mon mkhar Father White dré’dre Heap MönMon Castle GarSgar
I.1x A-24 MutiṂu ti PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-25 Dragu TaraBra gu rta ra tragubra gu’s Horse Corral Damzhung’Dam gzhung
I.1a? A-26 Tamchok Ngangpa DoRta mchog ngang pa do Orange Excellent Horse Headland PelgönDpal mgon
I.1x A-27 Kyeri Trowo Topgyel KharKye ri khro bo stobs rgyal mkhar257 Kyeri Trowo Topgyel KharKye ri khro bo stobs rgyal mkhar (Kye Mountain Trowo Topgyel’s Castle) NakchuNag chu
I.1x A-28 Shamdong DrakkharGsham gdong brag mkhar Basal Hole White Rock Formation Castle NakchuNag chu
I.1c A-29 Bidza MaktapsaBis rdza dmag ’thab sa (?) BidzaBis rdza Battleground GertséSger rtse
I.1a? A-30 Mönkhar SernakMon mkhar ser nag Yellow and Black MönMon Castle GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-31 Pangar Zhungkhang GokDpa’ ngar gzhung khang gog258 Ruined Houses of Mighty Hero Pasture GegyéDge rgyas
I.1x A-32 Sharo MöndurSha ro mon dur Deer Corpse MönMon Tombs (?) GegyéDge rgyas
I.1b A-33 Kapren GyanggokSkabs ren gyang gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-34 Tserlung KharnakMtsher lung mkhar nag TserMtsher Valley Black Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-35 Drak PukBrag phug Rock Formation Cave RutokRu thog
I.1b A-36 TsamaRtsa ma RutokRu thog
I.1x A-37 Mikpa KharruRmigs pa mkhar ru Lizard Castle Division RutokRu thog
I.1x A-38 Melong Mön KharMe long mon mkhar Mirror MönMon Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-39 Dinglep NgönpoSdings leb sngon po Blue Flattened Eminence RutokRu thog
I.1b A-40 ChukhargyamChu mkhar gyam Water Castle Cliff Shelter RutokRu thog
I.1x A-41 Ching SerpoPhying ser po (?) Yellow Felt (?) GarSgar
I.1b A-42 Chonggok MönkharMchong gog mon mkhar Ruined Agate MönMon Castle (?) GarSgar
I.1b A-43 Malung KharMa lung mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-44 Agok KharA gog mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-45 Khyunglung Ngül KharKhyung lung dngul mkhar Horned Eagle Valley Silver Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1a? A-46 Gang Tisé Bön KharGangs ti se’i bon mkhar BönBon Castle of Gang TiséGangs ti se PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-47 Lumo Podrang MöndoKlu mo pho brang mon rdo Female Water Spirits Palace MönMon Stones GegyéDge rgyas
I.1c A-48 Nam DzongGnam rdzong Sky Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1a A-49 Dzong PipiRdzong pi phi Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1c A-50 Takzik NordzongStag gzig nor rdzong Tiger Leopard Jewel Fortress Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1a, I.1b A-51 Wangchuk Gönpo KharDbang phyug mgon po mkhar Castle of Wangchuk GonpoDbang phyug mgon po Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1x A-52 KharchenMkhar chen/Mapang Pömo KharMa pang spos mo mkhar Great Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-53 Gya Nyima KharRgya nyi ma mkhar Big Sun Castle (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-54 Jomo Rirang KharJo mo ri rang mkhar Mistress Mountain Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-55 Drakchak KhongkhaBrag chag khong kha TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-56 KharngönMkhar sngon Blue Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-57 Naktsuk KharNag gtsug mkhar Black Acme Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-58 Hala KharHa la mkhar (West) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-59 Hala KharHa la mkhar (East) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-60 Gyülgül KharRgyul ’gul mkhar Quivering Intestines Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-61 Kaling KharKa gling mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-62 TsarangRtsa rang TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-63 Zhayé KharZha ye mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-64 Chumurti KhargokChu mur ti mkhar gog Water Springs Ruined Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-65 PemochéSpe mo che GarSgar
I.1x A-66 Kharlung KhargokMkhar lung mkhar gog Castle Valley Ruined Castle GarSgar
I.1c A-67 Lungpa Rakpa KharLung pa rag pa mkhar Tawny Valley Castle GarSgar
I.1b A-68 Gyammuk KharGyam smug mkhar Purplish Brown Cliff Shelter Castle GarSgar
I.1b A-69 Purok KharSpu rog mkhar Crow Castle GarSgar
I.1x A-70 Dungkar KhargokDung dkar mkhar gog White Conch Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-71 Saten KharSra brtan mkhar Hard and Steady Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-72 Kyungmo DrakkharSkyung mo brag mkhar Female Chough Rock Formation Castle RutokRu thog
I.1c A-73 Lhünburtsé DzongLhun ’bur rtse rdzong Hill Summit Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-74 DomraSdom ra Spider Enclosure Fortress (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.1x A-75 Jiu KyéByi’u kye (?) Little Bird Tea Urn (?) NyimaNyi ma
I.1c A-76 Nakra Drakseng DzongNag ra brag seng rdzong Black Expanse Lion Rock Fortress NyimaNyi ma
I.1b A-77 Bera PukSbe ra phug (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-78 Drakla DzongBrag la rdzong Rock Hill Fortress NgamringNgam ring
I.1a A-79 Tochu KharMtho chu mkhar Lofty River Castle Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1b A-80 Nakra DzongNag ra rdzong Black Expanse Fortress PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-81 Takla KharStag la mkhar Tiger Hill Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-82 Jiu KharByi’u mkhar Little Bird Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1x A-83 Wangdrak PukDbang brag phug Power Rock Formation Cave TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-84 Posa KhargokSpo sa mkhar gog (?) RutokRu thog
I.1b A-85 Kharru KhargokMkhar ru mkhar gog Castle Division Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-86 KharpochéMkhar po che Great Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-87 Sherang KharlungShe rang mkhar lung RutokRu thog
I.1c A-88 YilungDbyi lung Lynx Valley RutokRu thog
I.1a A-89 GekhöGe khod259 mkhar lung Demon Conqueror Castle Valley RutokRu thog
I.1b A-90 Chulung Okma KharChu lung ’og ma mkhar Lower Water Valley Castle RutokRu thog
I.1c A-91 MarlungMar lung (?) RutokRu thog
I.1a A-92 Luring NakhaLu ring sna kha Long Springs Prow RutokRu thog
I.1x A-93 Khaser Ramo Gyamo KharKha ser ra mo rgya mo mkhar Yellow Mouth Black Markings Female Goat Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-94 Deu Nakgu KharRde’u nag gu mkhar Black Hill Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-95 Tönkha LungkharMthon kha lung mkhar (?) RutokRu thog
I.1x A-96 GülringMgul ring (?) Drongpa’Brong pa
I.1c A-97 Drakgu SeldrönBrag gu gsal sgron Bright Lamp Rock Formation PelgönDpal mgon
I.1b A-98 Gartsang KharMgar gtsang mkhar GarSgar
I.1x A-99 Tang KhartséStang mkhar rtse TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-100 Zarang KhartséZa rang mkhar rtse TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-101 Pia KharPhi’a mkhar (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1a A-102 Balu KharBa lu mkhar (PulingSpu gling) Dwarf’s Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-103 Kardung KharDkar dung mkhar Conch White Castle PurangSpu rang
I.1b A-104 Bargyi KharBar gyi mkhar RutokRu thog
I.1x A-105 Ribong KharruRi bong mkhar ru Rabbit Castle Division RutokRu thog
I.1x A-106 Belpa KharSbal pa mkhar Frog Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-107 KyidzongSkyid rdzong Happiness Fortress RutokRu thog
I.1a A-108 DongmarGdong dmar Red Face RutokRu thog
I.1x A-109 KharkarMkhar dkar White Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-110 Dosham Möngyi KharRdo gsham mon gyi mkhar/ Dosham MöngyikharGdo gsham mon gyi mkhar Lower Rock Castle of the MönMon/ Lower Rock Castle of the MönMon TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-111 Dosham Möngyi YülRdo gsham mon gyi yul/ Dosham MöngyiyülGdo gsham mon gyi yul Rocks Below Village of the MönMon TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-112 Lung PukLung phug Spiritual Transmission Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-113 Cholo PukCho lo phug (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-114 KhartakMkhar ltag Upper Aspect Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-115 Rakhashak Möngyi KharRa kha shag mon gyi mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-116 Jangtang KharByang stang mkhar/KharpochéMkhar po che Great Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-117 Khar MarpoMkhar dmar po Red Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-118 Sharlang KharShar lang mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-119 Markar Juru KharMar dkar byu ru mkhar/Samdrup Khyung DzongBsam grub khyung rdzong White Butter Coral Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-120 Tsenlhé KharBtsan lha’i mkhar/Drakkar KharBrag dkar mkhar Castle of the Lhalha and Tsenbtsan / White Rock Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-121 Mani Tang KharMa ṇi thang mkhar Manima ṇi Plain Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-122 KölkharKol mkhar (?) TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1c A-123 Kamsang MönkharSkam srang mon mkhar Dry Plain MönMon Castle GertséSger rtse
I.1x A-124 Khargok Dorjé YudrönmaMkhar gog rdo rje g.yu sgron ma Dorjé YudrönmaRdo rje g.yu sgron ma260 Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1a A-125 Kolok KhargokKo logs mkhar gog RutokRu thog
I.1b A-126 Serzhung KhargokGser gzhung mkhar gog Golden Pasture Ruined Castle RutokRu thog
I.1x A-127 KharnakMkhar nag Black Castle RutokRu thog
I.1b A-128 Jekar KhargokBye dkar mkhar gog White Sands Ruined Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-129 Wutsé KharDbu rtse mkhar Acme Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-130 Chuti KharChu sti mkhar261 Water Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-131 Riwa MönkharRi ba mon mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-132 Rinti GangkharRi lti sgang mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1b A-133 PukkharPhug mkhar Cave Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-134 Balu KharBa lu mkhar (TsarangRtsa rang) Dwarf’s Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-135 Ronglha Gyeltsen MönkhangRong lha rgyal mtshan mon khang Valley God Victory Banner MönMon House SagaSa dga’
I.1b A-136 KharchungMkhar chung Little Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1c A-137 Dziden ChungwaBrdzi gdan chung ba Lesser Scent Block GarSgar
I.1c A-138 Arong MönkharA rong mon mkhar GarSgar
I.1b A-139 Shangtsé BönkharShang rtse bon mkhar ShangtséShang rtse BönBon castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-140 Shiri MönkharShi ri mon mkhar TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1x A-141 Rula KharRu la mkhar Horde Hill Castle TsamdaRtsa mda’
I.1 A-142 KharlungMkhar lung Castle Valley GegyéDge rgyas

Notes

[253] The classification of individual sites is made according to the most prominent type of monument found at each location. A good number of sites, nevertheless, have more than one kind of archaeological remains.
[254] Due to the extreme degradation of certain sites, their precise residential architectural composition could not be determined.
[255] Question marks in this column denote that the subtype noted is uncertain.
[256] DraGra/dramagra ma is a woody shrub that grows in certain parts of Upper Tibet.
[257] This appears to be the best spelling, reflecting the etymological basis of the site designation. See Bellezza, Calling Down the Gods, 406 (n. 222).
[258] In Bellezza, Antiquities of Upper Tibet, I refer to this site as Pangmar Zhungkhang GokSpang dmar gzhung khang gog (Marshy Red Pasture Ruined Habitations). I have now determined that this is a corrupted designation of the site.
[259] The name of an important BönBon tutelary god.
[260] The name of a popular Tibetan goddess.
[261] Tisti appears to be a spelling for the Zhang ZhungZhang zhung word for water. It is also sometimes rendered: tigti/titi.
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Note Citation for Page

John Vincent Bellezza, (Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010), .

Bibliographic Citation

John Vincent Bellezza. . Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010.