Tibetan and Himalayan Library - THL

THL Title Text
Antiquities of Zhang Zhung
by John Vincent Bellezza
Edited by Geoffrey Barstow, Mickey Stockwell and Michael White
Tibetan & Himalayan Library
Published under the THL Digital Text License.

I.2. Residential Structures in Other Locations: Religious and Elite Residences

Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo

Basic site data

  • Site name: Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo
  • Site number: B-46
  • Site typology: I.2a
  • Elevation: 4540 m to 4560 m
  • Administrative location (township): ChakgangLcags sgang
  • Administrative location (county): RutokRu thog
  • Survey expedition: HTAE
  • Survey date: October 6, 2003
  • Contemporary usage: None.
  • Identifiable Buddhist constructions: None.
  • Maps: UTRS I
  • View Place Dictionary Entry
  • View Site Images

General site characteristics

Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo was built on a broad sandy slope above the right/west side of the Dzomo LungMdzo mo lung (Female Yak Hybrid Valley) floor. Several kilometers down valley Dzomo LungMdzo mo lung enters the ChakgangLcags sgang plain. There are fairly extensive arable lands in the Dzomo LungMdzo mo lung valley, a portion of which are still cultivated. There appears to have been eight all-stone corbelled structures at this site, but some are so deteriorated that positive identification could not be achieved. Even the best preserved specimens are in a very poor physical state. The dokhangrdo khang of Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo were substantially built using uncut granite and a dark gray metamorphic stone. The heavy foundation walls contain stones up to 1.4 m in length. The edifices are mostly east facing.

Oral tradition

According to local residents, Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo was an ancient MönMon settlement.

Site elements

Residential Structure RS1

Residential structure RS1 (6.9 m by 3.1 m) has been leveled to its foundations. However, the courtyard (5 m by 6.9 m) on its forward side is still somewhat intact. Standing walls of the courtyard reach 1.2 m in height. The rear wall of RS1 was built at least 40 cm into the slope. An old enclosure of unknown function is found 10 m south of RS1.

Residential Structure RS2

Residential structure RS2 (9.2 m by 6.6 m) is located 74 m northwest of RS1. Only faint traces of the foundation remain, calling into question its identity. An upright block of granite in the foundation prominently extends 50 cm above ground level. The uphill wall of the RS2 is set 1 m below the surface, while the downhill wall was elevated 1 m above the slope.

Residential Structure RS3

Residential structure RS3 (6 m by 4 m) is situated in a hollow, 28 m southeast or downhill of RS2. It consisted of two rooms built at the same elevation. A wall buttress used to support the heavy roof and its semi-subterranean aspect clearly identify RS3 as a dokhangrdo khang. The rear wall was built 70 cm into the uphill slope. On the forward or east side of the structure there are the remains of a walled courtyard (7 m by 6 m) deeply set into the ground (1.3 m below the surrounding surface). Perhaps another tier of rooms occupied the rear of what appears to be the courtyard but, if so, all visible traces of them have been obliterated.

Residential Structure RS4

Residential structure RS4 (6.2 m by 4.7 m) appears to have consisted of a single tier of two rooms. It is situated 12 m south of RS3. Its rear wall is set 1 m below the surface. The part of the forward wall straddling the two rooms reaches 1.6 m in height, the highest elevation structure at Dzomo Lungra TrawoMdzo mo lung ra khra bo. There is much rubble lying in front of the forward wall. Perhaps some of these stones were part of another tier of rooms.

Residential Structure RS5

Residential structure RS5 (4.4 m by 2.8 m) is located 9 m south of RS4. Its rear wall was built at least 1 m into the uphill slope. It may have had a courtyard in the front (east).

Residential Structure RS6

Residential structure RS6 is situated 15 m west of RS5. It is comprised of two interconnecting fragmentary foundations (7.1 m by 5.3 m, 5.1 m by 4.7 m). These two foundations may have given rise to rooms and a walled courtyard, respectively, but there is not enough structural evidence in place to know for certain. The rear/west wall of RS6 is depressed 50 cm below ground level.

Residential Structure RS7

Residential structure RS7 is located directly below RS6. It too has been reduced to two interconnecting foundations (5.6 m by 5.2 m, 6.2 m by 5.6 m), which may have underlain the rooms and courtyard of the structure. The rear wall of RS7 is set 1.2 m below the upper level of the slope.

Residential Structure RS8

Residential structure RS8 (11 m by 6.3 m) is situated 30 m southeast of RS7 at the same elevation. RS8 is a larger and qualitatively different type of structure than its counterparts. It consisted of at least five small rooms, each of which is marked by a depression in the ground around 70 cm deep. This structure appears to have been aligned in the cardinal directions. Small fragments of standing walls (up to 1.5 m) have survived, but not enough is in place to accurately gauge the architectural character of the structure.


Note Citation for Page

John Vincent Bellezza, Antiquities of Zhang Zhung: A Comprehensive Inventory of Pre-Buddhist Archaeological Monuments on the Tibetan Upland (Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010), .

Bibliographic Citation

John Vincent Bellezza. Antiquities of Zhang Zhung: A Comprehensive Inventory of Pre-Buddhist Archaeological Monuments on the Tibetan Upland. Charlottesville, VA: Tibetan & Himalayan Library, 2010.